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Exocoetus volitans Linnaeus, 1758
COSMOPOLITAN FLYINGFISH
Common Flying-fish; Cosmopolitan Flying-fish; Tropical Two Wing Flyingfish; Two-wing Flyingfish; Tropical Two-wing Flyingfish

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Exocoetidae   Exocoetus

Exocoetus volitans
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Exocoetus volitans

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Exocoetus volitans
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Exocoetus volitans
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • dorsal fin to ll: 6 scale rows
  • all fins pale
  • pelvic short, near pectoral
  • juvenile - nape not humped, no barbel
Dorsal rays 13-15; anal rays 12-15; midlateral scales about 43-48; snout shorter than eye diameter; pectoral fins 70% of standard length or longer; pelvic fins very short, their tips far short of reaching anal fin origin; normally 6 scale rows between dorsal fin and lateral line. Juvenile without nape hump, without chin barbel.

Dark blue to blackish on back and upper sides, silvery white below; fins mainly pale or slightly dusky.

Maximum size, 30 cm.

Habitat: pelagic in surface waters, usually offshore.

Depth: 0-20 m.

Circumtropical distribution; in the eastern Pacific from the mouth of the Gulf of California to central Chile and the oceanic islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 20 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: zooplankton; Pelagic crustacea; pelagic fish larvae; pelagic fish eggs.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=24; Southern limit=-25; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=49; Longitudinal range=45.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 30 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Dasilao , J. C., Jr. , Sasaki , K. and Okamura, )., 1997., The Hemiramphid, Oxyporhamphus, is a flyingfish (Exocoetidae)., Ichthyological Research, 44:101-107.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Parin, N.V. and Shakhovskoy, I.B., 2000., A review of the flying fish genus Exocoetus (Exocoetidae) with descriptions of two new species from the southern Pacific Ocean., Journal Ichthyology (English translation of Voprosy Ikhtiologie), 40:31-63.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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You have requested an unaccepted/invalid name entry, the corresponding accepted/valid name is presented here as the result.
 
Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Beloniformes  
 Family Exocoetidae  
 Genus Exocoetus  
  Exocoetus volitans    Linnaeus, 1758 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Exocaetus commersonnii Exocaetus volans Exocaetus volitans Exocetus volitans Exocoetus commersonii Exocoetus commersonnii Exocoetus evolans Exocoetus volans Exocoetus volitans vagabundus Halocypselus evolans Halocypselus mesogaster   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Character: Body elongate, broadly cylindrical. Head short. Snout blunt. Mouth small. Both jaws of equal length; juveniles without barbels. Gill rakers well developed, with 30-34 gill rakers on first gill arch. Dorsal and anal fins with 13-15 soft rays; pectoral fins high on sides, strikingly long, always extending beyond posterior end of anal fin, anterior 1 soft rays unbranched; pelvic fins short, not reaching anal-fin origin, inserted nearer to pectoral-fin insertion than to anal-fin origin; caudal fin deeply forked, its lower lobe longer than the upper. Scales large, cycloid, easily shed; predorsal scales 17-20; lateral line without branch at throrax, with 43-48 scales; as a rule 6 transverse rows of scales between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line. Body deep blue above, pale below; dorsal fin without distinct black region; dorsal side of pectoral fin from anterior margin to 5th or 6th rays dark. 
Habitat: Adults occur in surface waters, both near and far from the coast. Form schools. Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for long distances above the surface. Feed mostly on crustaceans and other planktonic animals. Preyed upon by swordfish, tunas 
Distribution: Widespread in tropical and subtropical zone of all oceans, probably absent in the inland seas of Southeast Asia. It is very common in all Taiwanese waters. 
Utility: Minor importance to fisheries. Sometimes marketed fresh or dried.  
Name Code: 380880
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Exocoetus&speciesname=volitans ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Exocoetus&speciesname=volitans
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Exocoetus&speciesname=volitans ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Exocoetus-volitans.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Exocoetus volitans Linnaeus , 1758

Tropical two-wing flyingfish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Exocoetus volitans   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Exocoetus volitans (Tropical two-wing flyingfish) Exocoetus volitans
Picture by FAO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes (Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae (Flyingfishes)
Etymology: Exocoetus: Greek, exos = outside + Greek, koite = hole (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 20 m.   Subtropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Widespread in tropical and subtropical zones of all oceans including the western Mediterranean Sea and part of the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 3720 ), probably absent in the inland seas of southeastern Asia (Sulawesi Sea, Sulu Sea, Flores, Banda, Ceram and Halmahera seas (Ref. 27313 )), and the Benguela Current (Ref. 4498 ). Eastern Pacific: Mexico to central Chile; also the Galapagos and Hawaii. Western Pacific: Japan, Marshall Islands, Philippines, Australia (Ref. 5530 ), and Tahiti.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987 ); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-15; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 12 - 14; Vertebrae : 43 - 46. Body dark, iridescent blue above, silvery white below; pectorals and caudal fin greyish, other fins not pigmented (Ref. 2797 ). Juveniles with or without black bars (Ref. 2797 ). Branchiostegal rays: 9-11 (Ref. 36606 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur in surface waters, both near and far from the coast (Ref. 5217 ). Form schools. Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for long distances above the surface. Feed mostly on crustaceans and other planktonic animals. Preyed upon by swordfish, tunas and many other larger pelagic fishes (Ref. 9987 ). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 36606 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous (Ref. 36606 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Parin, Nikolay V. | Collaborators

Parin, N.V. , 1996. On the species composition of flying fishes (Exocoetidae) in the West-Central part of tropical Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 36(5):357-364. (Ref. 27313 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 28 January 2013

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 23.2 - 29.2, mean 27.9 (based on 4828 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00164 - 0.01111), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.0   ±0.09 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (17 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen Fish Forum
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