Beever, J. E. 1999. Studies of Fissidens(Bryophyta: Musci) in New Zealand: a synopsis and key to taxa. New Zealand J. Bot. 37: 659–670.
Bruggeman-Nannenga, M. A. 1997. Notes on Fissidens VI. New synonyms, new combinations and validation of some names. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 81: 155–173.
Bruggeman-Nannenga, M. A. & R. A. Pursell 1995 . Notes on Fissidens V. Lindbergia 20: 49–55.
Churchill, S. P. & E. L. Linares C. 1995. Prodromus bryologiae Novo-Granatensis: introducción a la flora de musgos de Colombia. Parte 1: Adelotheciaceae a Funariaceae. Bibliot. José Jerónimo Triana 12: 1–453 + i–xxvi.
1.2-10 × 1-2.5 mm.
unbranched and branched; axillary hyaline nodules present; central strand weak or absent.
as many as 25 pairs, narrowly lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, acute to sharply acute to short acuminate, to 1.9 × 0.3; dorsal lamina narrowed proximally, ending before or at insertion, infrequently ± decurrent; vaginant laminae
/5 leaf length, ± equal, minor lamina ending on or near margin; margin entire, limbate on all laminae, limbidium confluent at apex or ending shortly before apex, extending to base of dorsal lamina, limbidial cells 2-3-stratose; costa percurrent to excurrent, bryoides-type; laminal cells 1-stratose, distinct, smooth, ± bulging, firm-walled, elongate, 7-22 × 4-13 µm, increasing in size toward proximal part of leaf.
rhizoautoicous; perigonia gemmiform, proximal to infertile and fertile stems.
1 per perichaetium.
to 12 mm.
theca exserted, ± erect, radially symmetric to inclined, arcuate, bilaterally symmetic, 0.35-1.25 mm; peristome bryoides-type; operculum 0.25-0.3 µm.
cucullate, smooth, 0.5 mm.
Bare, shaded soil, often among grasses in open
forests and around bases of coastal shrubs; Calif.; Mexico; West Indies; South America; Europe; Asia; Africa; Pacific Islands (New Caledonia, New Zealand); Australia.
is distinguished by its delicate dimorphic stems, usually long excurrent costa, limbidium confluent at leaf apex, and slightly elongate laminal cells. The theca is usually arcuate but can also be erect.