Head moderately large, broad and horizontal dorsally. Snout short. Eye large, on side of head. Mouth protractile, oblique; posterior of jaw distant from anterior margin of eye. Body elongated, slightly cylindrical and posterior laterally compressed; dorsal profile horizontal, ventral profile arched to end of anal fin. Scales large; longitudinal scales：29-32; predorsal scales：16-17. Dorsal soft rays：7-9; pectoral soft rays：12; pelvic soft rays：6; anal soft rays：8-10 (female). Dorsal fin far behind snout, postdorsal length about two times the length of dorsal fin base; pectoral fins reach pelvic fins; dorsal fin origin slightly behind pelvic fin origin; pelvic fin origin close to middle between snout tip and caudal peduncle end; anal fin rounded. Brownish or grayish, slightly transparent; darker dorsally and grayish white ventrally.
Prefers standing to slow running water, can be found in ponds, paddy fields and slow moving reaches of river, especially vegetated environments. Highly tolerant to low dissolved oxygen and pollution in water. The third, forth and fifth anal fin rays of ma
Northern and Central America. Introduced to Taiwan in 1913, can be found in whole island of Taiwan.
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) >
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) >
(Poeciliids) > Poeciliinae
Gambusia: From the Cuban term, Gambusino, which means "nothing", usually in the context of a joke or a farce. Fishing for gambusinos = when one catches nothing (Ref.
From the Latin word
meaning related (Ref.
. More on authors:
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
North and Central America: Mississippi River basin from central Indiana and Illinois in USA south to Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Slope drainages west to Mexico. One of the species with the widest range of introductions which acquired for itself a near pan-global distribution (Ref.
). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); 7.0 cm TL (female); common length : 3.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 3 years (Ref.
: 9 - 10. Origin of dorsal fin opposite 7th anal ray. Length of anal base much less than half distance from caudal. 8 horizontal scale rows between back and abdomen. Ventrals terminate immediately before anal fin. Pelvic fins reach ventrals.
Most abundant in lower reaches of streams (Ref.
). Adults inhabit standing to slow-flowing water; most common in vegetated ponds and lakes, backwaters and quiet pools of streams. Found frequently in brackish water (Ref.
). Pelagic and surface predatory fish (Ref.
). Feed on zooplankton, small insects and detritus (Ref.
). Used as live food for carnivorous aquarium fishes. Viviparous (Ref.
). Effective in mosquito control and widely introduced, but found to compete with indigenous fish and to upset the ecological balance (Ref.
The species is viviparous (Ref.
). Internal fertilization is possible because the anal fin of the male is modified into a copulatory organ. The females carries about 30 alevins and gestation lasts for a period of 24 days (Ref.
) to a month (Ref.
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00636 - 0.00991), b=3.11 (3.05 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=1.20; tmax=3; Fec=10-60).
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Reyes, Rodolfo B.
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