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Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758
THREESPINE STICKLEBACK
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Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus

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Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus

Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus

Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus

Gasterosteus aculeatus
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Gasterosteus aculeatus
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 14
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Gasterosteus aculeatus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

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Gasterosteus aculeatus
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0016 0055 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Northern Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0107 2400 [detail]
© 2007 Bradford Norman

Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Three-spined Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0311 2211 [detail]
© 2011 Bill Stagnaro

Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Three-spined Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0311 2212 [detail]
© 2011 Bill Stagnaro

Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Alaskan Stickleback
ID: 6666 6666 0117 0043 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2017 California Academy of Sciences

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0999 0002 [detail]
© 1999 Aaron Nadig

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0999 0028 [detail]
© 1999 Aaron Nadig

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0999 0027 [detail]
© 1999 Aaron Nadig

Gasterosteus aculeatus ACULEATUS
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0016 0053 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Gasterosteus aculeatus ACULEATUS
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0016 0054 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmored Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 1109 0784 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2009

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmored Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 1109 0780 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2009

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmoured Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0448 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2013

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmoured Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0449 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2013

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gasterosteus+aculeatus+williamsoni&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gasterosteus+aculeatus+williamsoni&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 4
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmored Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 1109 0784 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2009

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmored Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 1109 0780 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2009

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmoured Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0448 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2013

Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Unarmoured Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0913 0449 [detail]
© Sam Stewart 2013

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from CalPhotos
   Top | See original

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gasterosteus+aculeatus+aculeatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Gasterosteus+aculeatus+aculeatus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

CalPhotos    
Contributors       Log In  
 

Number of matches : 5
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0999 0002 [detail]
© 1999 Aaron Nadig

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0999 0028 [detail]
© 1999 Aaron Nadig

Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus
Threespine Stickleback
ID: 0000 0000 0999 0027 [detail]
© 1999 Aaron Nadig

Gasterosteus aculeatus ACULEATUS
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0016 0053 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Gasterosteus aculeatus ACULEATUS
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0016 0054 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


Copyright © 1995-2019 UC Regents. All rights reserved.

CalPhotos is a project of BNHM      University of California, Berkeley

Following modified from FishBase
   Top | See original

http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gasterosteus&speciesname=aculeatus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gasterosteus&speciesname=aculeatus
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gasterosteus&speciesname=aculeatus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Gasterosteus-aculeatus.html

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus , 1758

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Gasterosteus aculeatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gasterosteiformes (Sticklebacks and seamoths) > Gasterosteidae (Sticklebacks and tubesnouts)
Etymology: Gasterosteus: Greek, gaster = stomach + Greek, osteon = bone (Ref. 45335 ) ;   aculeatus: aculeatus meaning spined (Ref. 1998 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 50550 ).   Subtropical; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672 ); 72°N - 25°N, 117°E - 60°E (Ref. 26213 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumarctic and temperate regions: Extending south to the Black Sea, southern Italy, Iberian Peninsula, North Africa; in Eastern Asia north of Japan (35°N), in North America north of 30-32°N; Greenland.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 5.5   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388 ); common length : 5.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1998 ); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 72489 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 2 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-14; Anal spines : 1; Anal soft rays : 7 - 11; Vertebrae : 29 - 34. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners in Europe by having trunk and caudal peduncle covered by a complete series of 29-35 bony scutes. Other characters important to separate this species from other species of the genus include posterior edge of scutes crenulated and scutes forming a lateral keel on caudal peduncle. Scutes may be missing on posterior part of trunk in hybrid zone with Gasterosteus gymnurus and in some isolated freshwater populations of northeastern Europe (Ref. 59043 ). Identified by the 3 to 4 sharp, free spines before the dorsal fin, the pelvic fin reduced to a sharp spine and a small ray, and the series of plates along the sides of the body (Ref. 27547 ). Gill rakers long and slender, 17 to 25 on the first arch or strictly freshwater forms, 1 or 2 more in anadromous forms; lateral line with microscopic pores (Ref. 27547 ). The anadromous form is fully plated, with up to 37 plates on the sides and a rather pronounced keel on each side of the caudal peduncle (Ref. 27547 ). Dorsal spines separated from each other and from the soft-rayed fins, each spine having a reduced membrane attached to its posterior side; anal spine free from rest of the fin; posterior margin of pectorals nearly truncate; caudal truncate to slightly indented (Ref. 27547 ). Freshwater forms usually mottled brown or greenish; anadromous forms silvery green to bluish black (Ref. 27547 ). A few isolated populations are black (Ref. 27547 ). Sides usually pale; belly yellow, white or silvery (Ref. 27547 ). Fins pale; pectoral rays often have dark dots (Ref. 27547 ). Breeding males (except for black forms) become brilliant bluish or green with blue or green eyes, and the forward part of the body, especially the breast region, turns bright red or orange (Ref. 27547 ). Caudal fin with 12 rays (Ref. 2196 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults occur in fresh waters, estuaries and coastal seas (Ref. 4119 ). Anadromous, with numerous non-anadromous populations in brackish or pure freshwater, rarely in marine waters. In the sea, confined to coastal waters. In freshwater, adults prefer to live in small stream but may occur in a variety of habitats including lakes and large rivers (Ref. 59043 ). Inhabit shallow vegetated areas, usually over mud or sand (Ref. 5723 ). Form schools. Young associated with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114 , 12115 ). Juveniles move to the sea (anadromous populations) or to deeper, larger water bodies (freshwater populations) in July-August, forming large feeding schools (Ref. 59043 ). Feed on worms, crustaceans, larvae and adult aquatic insects, drowned aerial insects, and small fishes; has also been reported to feed on their own fry and eggs (Ref. 1998 ). Eggs are found in nests constructed from plant material (Ref. 41678 ). Males build, guard and aerate the nest where the eggs are deposited (Ref. 205 ). Maximum length in freshwater is 8 cm while in saltwater is 11 cm (Ref. 35388 ). Occasionally taken commercially in Scandinavia and processed into fishmeal and oil (Ref. 28219 , 28964 ). Commonly used as a laboratory animal (Ref. 1998 ). A large bibliography is available at www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/1345/stickbibl.html.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Spawning behavior is similar for both freshwater and anadromous forms (Ref. 28966 ). Just before breeding, males become very territorial. The male builds a nest of plant-material glued together with spiggin, a protein produced in the kidney (Ref. 52349 ). Once a nest is built, the male entices the female into the nest by performing a courtship dance which is a series of zigzag movements (Ref. 1998 ). A receptive female follows the male who points the opening of the nest by posing above it with his head down. The female enters the nest, deposits up to a few hundred eggs, and is driven out by the male after eggs have been deposited. The male then enters the nest to fertilize the eggs. The male can choose to court another female to enter the nest and lay eggs before entering himself to fertilise the deposited eggs. Females may lay eggs in several nests over a period of several days or may be courted by the same male (Ref. 27547 ). The male guards and ventilates the eggs and young (Ref. 1998 ). During spawning season, males develop a bright orange to red belly and blue-green flank and eyes. Eggs hatch in 7-8 days. Anadromous forms usually die of exhaustion after spawning cycle. Freshwater individuals are able to complete several cycles within one year or sometimes over several years (Ref. 59043 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr , 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Updated: 2020-01-23 00:53:25 gmt
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