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Gerres filamentosus Cuvier, 1829
Flagfin Mojarra; Thread-fin Silver-belly; Threadfin Silver Belly; Threadfin Silver Biddy; Whipfin Silver-biddy; Whipfin Silverbelly; Whipfin Silverbiddy; Victor filamentosus Cuvier, 1829; Gerres philippinus Günther, 1862; Gerres punctatus Cuvier, 1830

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Gerreidae   Gerres

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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Gerreidae  
 Genus Gerres  
  Gerres filamentosus    Cuvier, 1829 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Gerres microphthalmus Gerres philippinus Gerres punctata Gerres punctatus Pertica filamentosa Sparus edentulus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 福建魚類誌(朱等, 1985); 楊鴻嘉圖鑑 (金)
Character: Body compressed, elevated back, deep, its depth 2 to 2.5 times in standard length in larger specimens, up to 3 times in smaller ones. Second dorsal-fin spine laterally compressed, produced into a filament, not reaching upper lobe of caudal fin when depressed; second anal-fin spine much shorter than length of base of anal fin; pectoral fins long, tip of depressed fins reaching to level of first anal-fin spine; caudal fin deeply forked, its longest rays 3 times length of median rays and slightly longer than length of head. Scales on lateral line 43 to 46. Body silvery, with 7 to 10 pale dusky ovoid spots on upper half of sides. Dorsal fin hyaline except for end of filamentous spine, black; anal, caudal, pectoral, and pelvic fins dusky hyaline, tips of anal fin, lower lobe of caudal and pelvic fins white. 
Habitat: Lives in shallow coastal waters to depths of at least 50 m, on sandy bottoms, including around coralline areas, also entering lower fresh-water reaches of rivers. Schooling; feeds on small organisms such as crustaceans, polychaetes, and foraminiferans liv 
Distribution: Widespread in all warm seas of the Indo-Pacific from the east coast of Africa through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to the West Pacific islands; south to northern Australia, north to Ryukyu Islands. It is common in waters around Taiwan. 
Utility: Flesh excellent, but spoils rapidly. 
Name Code: 381679
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Gerres filamentosus Cuvier , 1829

Whipfin silver-biddy Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gerres filamentosus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Gerres filamentosus (Whipfin silver-biddy) Gerres filamentosus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Gerreidae (Mojarras)
Etymology: Gerres: Latin, gerres = a kind of anchovies; cited by Plinius .  More on author: Cuvier .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 4372 ).   Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959 ); 32°N - 36°S, 24°E - 171°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar to Japan and Australia; New Caledonia (Ref. 26587 ) and Vanuatu (Ref. 13300 ). Enters rivers and lakes in Madagascar and the east coast of Africa. Not in the Middle East (Ref. 103159 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 19.0   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 116875 ); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-11; Anal spines : 2-3; Anal soft rays : 7 - 8.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are coastal inhabitants found on soft bottoms (Ref. 44894 ), over sandy substrate (Ref. 12693 ). Juveniles are found in brackish mangrove estuaries, sometimes enter fresh water (Ref. 2847 , 44894 ), lakes (Ref. 4323 ), tidal creeks (Ref. 44894 ) and lower freshwater reaches of rivers (Ref. 12915 ). Feed on small crustaceans, polychaetes and forams on sand or muddy-sand bottoms (Ref. 12915 ), worms and insect larvae (Ref. 12693 ). Length at first reproduction was reported to be around 12 cm SL, for a population in a South African estuary (D. Woodland, pers.comm. 07/13). Salted or made into fish sauce.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Juveniles enter estuaries and mangrove areas at 1 cm SL and stay until they reach maturity, at which stage they move out to sea (Ref. 36558 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Woodland, David J. | Collaborators

Woodland, D.J. , 1984. Gerreidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 2. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3409 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 11 July 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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Egg development
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Internet sources

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.8 - 29.1, mean 28.2 (based on 1220 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01010 - 0.01570), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.3   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.7). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. Modified by Casal, Christine Marie V. Fish Forum
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