New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia
Extra Distribution Information
NW of Kalbarri, WA (26°55'S) to Moreton Bay QLD (26°57'S) also Herald Cay, QLD (16°40'S, 149°20'E), Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs and Lord Howe Island, NSW, and Norfolk Island; tropical, west Pacific.
Lord Howe Province (14), Northeast Province (18), Norfolk Island Province (21), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)
The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)
Dorsal-fin rays X, 10; anal-fin rays III, 10; pectoral-fin rays 14. Eye is relatively large, its lower edge well above a line from the tip of the snout to the middle of the caudal fin fork. Caudal fin is moderately forked and with blunt tips. Overall color is silvery white to grayish. The scales of the back and sides have a small brownish basal spot. Prominent black blotches are scattered mainly on the anterior half of the body. A very faint bar is sometimes present below the eye to the lower edge of the cheek. Fins are clear to reddish, the caudal fin sometimes dusky reddish-brown. Faint spots may be evident on the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins.
Occurs over sand and rubble areas adjacent to rock and coral reefs. Feeds on bottom-dwelling gastropods. Caught with bottom longlines and handlines. Marketed fresh.
Western Pacific: including southern Japan, South China Sea, Australia, Coral Sea, New Caledonia, and Tonga. Recently reported from Norfolk Island. Taiwan: South, Penghu, Lyudao, North-East.
Occurs over sand and rubble areas adjacent to rock and coral reefs in lagoons and outer slopes (Ref.
). Feeds on bottom-dwelling gastropods. Also caught with bottom longlines and handlines (Ref.
). Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen
, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.3 - 28.9, mean 27.6 (based on 408 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01069 - 0.03395), b=2.97 (2.82 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22-0.24).
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Olisa, Kristine Elaine Paz
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