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Inhabits offshore reefs (Ref.
), trawling grounds of the continental shelves and offshore rocky bottoms (Ref.
). Juveniles inshore on muddy substrates (Ref.
). Solitary or in small groups (Ref.
). Feeds mostly on bottom invertebrates and small fishes (Ref.
). Potential commercial fish if sufficient stocks can be located (Ref.
). Marketed fresh (Ref.
); sometimes with a strong and unpleasant flavor (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen
, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 21.6 - 28.3, mean 26.8 (based on 971 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02042 (0.01172 - 0.03557), b=2.88 (2.73 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.8 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23).
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Olisa, Kristine Elaine Paz
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