Indo-West Pacific: southern Japan to the Indo-Malaysian region, probably eastward to India. Has often been confused w/ the young of
, hence its distributional limits are somewhat obscure. Records of
from the Western Indian Ocean probably pertain to
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
In sheltered coastal bays and sand and mud slopes in depths over 20 m (Ref.
); also in coastal trawling grounds. Juveniles sometimes in shallow estuaries on algae reefs (Ref.
). Sometimes forms schools. Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates. Sexually mature upon reaching 15-17 cm SL. Sometimes caught with handlines and marketed dried (Ref.
) or fresh. In Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen
, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.2 - 28.8, mean 28.1 °C (based on 445 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00754 - 0.04192), b=2.97 (2.78 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic level (Ref.
): 3.2 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22).
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
): Calcium = 44.3 [25.8, 77.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.539 [0.335, 0.850] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.6 [17.6, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.126 [0.075, 0.187] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.7 [21.1, 57.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 71.3 [20.8, 201.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.85, 1.79] mg/100g (wet weight);
Luna, Susan M.
Olisa, Kristine Elaine Paz
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