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Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw &. Nodder, 1797)
ZEBRA MORAY
Zebra Eel; Gymnomuraena doliata Lacépède, 1803; Gymnothorax zebra Shaw and Nodder, 1797

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Muraenidae   Gymnomuraena

Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gymnomuraena zebra

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Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Gymnomuraena zebra
Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Gymnomuraena zebra

Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Gymnomuraena zebra
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Overview
Main identification features Dorsal and anal fins scarcely apparent, developed as skin- covered ridges on rear part of body, origin of dorsal near head; tip of tail blunt with a skin-covered fin; teeth blunt, molar-like, covering jaws and roof of mouth like cobblestone pavement; front nostril tubular; tail <<1/2 total length.

Brown to nearly blackish with narrow whitish bars.

Size: attains 150 cm, but common to 100 cm.

Habitat: rocky and rubble bottoms.

Depth 1-50 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; in the eastern Pacific it occurs in the southwest Gulf of California, and central Mexico to Ecuador, and all the oceanic islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 50 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=27; Southern limit=-3; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=30; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Macroalgae; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef and soft bottom; Sand & gravel.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 150 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Almenara Roldán, S. C., 2000., Demanda internacional en el manejo de especies marinas de ornato. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, estrategias de manejo para las especies marinas de ornato., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:30-38.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Balart , E. F. and Arvizu-Martínez, J., 1995., Contribución al conocimiento del origen y distribución de la ictiofauna del Golfo de California, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:57-78.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., The moray eels (Pisces: Muraenidae) of the Galapagos Islands, with new records and synonymies of extralimital species., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 40:417-427.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Shaw , G. and Nodder, F. P., 1813., The Naturalist's Miscellany, or coloured figures of natural objects; drawn and described from nature. London., Naturalist's Misc., :unnumbered pages.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.

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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/86052eff-96be-480c-8468-e1a09c26728d/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/86052eff-96be-480c-8468-e1a09c26728d/
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Anguilliformes  
 Family Muraenidae  
 Genus Gymnomuraena  
  Gymnomuraena zebra    (Shaw, 1797) 
Provider: Chen, Hong-Ming 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Echidna zebra Gymnomuraena fasciata Gymnothorax zebra Muraena molendinaris Muraena zebra Muraenophis colubrina Poecilophis zebra   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993) Chen, Shao & Chen(1994)A review of muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zoological studies 33(1):44-64 Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1797:4 unnum. pp., Pl. 322 [The Naturalist's Miscellany, or coloured figures of natural objects drawn and described from nature.]
Character: HL 12.2-15.0, DGO 18-20, TR 1.76 in TL; Vert 132-137. Body elongate, trunk longer, tail shorter than head and trunk, wrinkled skin. Snout short, lower jaw slightly shorter than upper. Vertical fins unclear and hidden below the tough skin. Brown to blackish body, encircled with 43-76 creamy-white narrow rings. Some rings incomplete. 
Habitat: Eat crabs or other crustaceans. 
Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa, north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef. 
Utility: Aquarium. 
Name Code: 380747
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Gymnomuraena zebra
Gymnomuraena zebra
Zebra Moray
ID: 6666 6666 0509 0476 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2009 California Academy of Sciences

Gymnomuraena zebra
Gymnomuraena zebra
Zebra Moray
ID: 0000 0000 0314 0184 [detail]
© 2014 William Flaxington

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