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Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw &. Nodder, 1797)
ZEBRA MORAY
Zebra Eel; Gymnomuraena doliata Lacépède, 1803; Gymnothorax zebra Shaw and Nodder, 1797

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Muraenidae   Gymnomuraena

Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gymnomuraena zebra

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Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Gymnomuraena zebra
Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Gymnomuraena zebra

Gymnomuraena zebra
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Gymnomuraena zebra
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Overview
Main identification features Dorsal and anal fins scarcely apparent, developed as skin- covered ridges on rear part of body, origin of dorsal near head; tip of tail blunt with a skin-covered fin; teeth blunt, molar-like, covering jaws and roof of mouth like cobblestone pavement; front nostril tubular; tail <<1/2 total length.

Brown to nearly blackish with narrow whitish bars.

Size: attains 150 cm, but common to 100 cm.

Habitat: rocky and rubble bottoms.

Depth 1-50 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific from East Africa to the Americas; in the eastern Pacific it occurs in the southwest Gulf of California, and central Mexico to Ecuador, and all the oceanic islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 50 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; sea-stars/cucumbers/urchins.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=27; Southern limit=-3; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=30; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Macroalgae; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef and soft bottom; Sand & gravel.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 150 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Almenara Roldán, S. C., 2000., Demanda internacional en el manejo de especies marinas de ornato. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, estrategias de manejo para las especies marinas de ornato., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:30-38.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Balart , E. F. and Arvizu-Martínez, J., 1995., Contribución al conocimiento del origen y distribución de la ictiofauna del Golfo de California, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:57-78.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • McCosker , J.E. and Rosenblatt, R.H., 1975., The moray eels (Pisces: Muraenidae) of the Galapagos Islands, with new records and synonymies of extralimital species., Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 40:417-427.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Shaw , G. and Nodder, F. P., 1813., The Naturalist's Miscellany, or coloured figures of natural objects; drawn and described from nature. London., Naturalist's Misc., :unnumbered pages.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Vega, A.J., Villareal, N., 2003., Peces asociados a arrecifes y manglares en el Parque Nacional Coiba., Tecnociencia, 5:65-76.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.

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Gymnomuraena zebra, Zebra moray : fisheries, aquarium
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Gymnomuraena zebra ( Shaw , 1797 )

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Pictures | Videos | Google image Image of Gymnomuraena zebra (Zebra moray) Gymnomuraena zebra
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Anguilliformes (Eels and morays) > Muraenidae (Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnomuraena: Greek, gymnos = naked + Latin, muraena = morey eel (Ref. 45335 ) .
More on author: Shaw .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 30573 ). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S, 32°E - 78°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390 ) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964 ) to the Society Islands, north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to the Great Barrier Reef. Eastern Central Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico and from Guatemala to northern Colombia, including the Galapagos (Ref. 9324 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602 ); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0; Vertebrae : 132 - 137. Close set narrow dark bands (Ref. 30404 ). Has close-set pebble-like teeth used for crushing hard-shelled prey (Ref. 37816 ). Rounded snout (Ref. 48635 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A secretive inhabitant of sandy and rocky bottoms, crevices and ledges of seaward reefs. It feeds primarily on xanthid crabs, but also on other crustaceans, mollusks and sea urchins (Ref. 9710 , 48635 ). Benthic from 1-39 m, usually at <4 m (Ref. 58302 ). Possibly a protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 32169 ). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Protogyny unconfirmed (Ref. 84746 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen , 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 16 August 2011

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28 °C (based on 1176 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00050 (0.00025 - 0.00101), b=3.26 (3.10 - 3.42), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.9   ±0.31 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 22.3 [11.4, 34.8] mg/100g; Iron = 0.405 [0.239, 0.854] mg/100g; Protein = 18.6 [16.3, 21.1] %; Omega3 = 0.088 [0.038, 0.242] g/100g; Selenium = 54.4 [28.4, 107.5] μg/100g; VitaminA = 43.1 [11.3, 148.7] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.944 [0.659, 1.328] mg/100g (wet weight);

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