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Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker, 1859)
GIANT MORAY
Muraena javanica Bleeker, 1859

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Muraenidae   Gymnothorax

Gymnothorax javanicus
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gymnothorax javanicus

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Overview
Main identification features
  • green-brown + scattered dark spots
  • gill opening in black blotch
Relatively deep bodied, especially adults - depth 6-14% of length; head length 11-15% of total length; dorsal and anal fins covered with skin, but very evident, with origins at or (in dorsal) before anus; front nostril simple tube; posterior nostril at level of profile of head; lower jaw straight, mouth closes completely; teeth sharp, those space on front roof of mouth in 2 rows at front; upper jaw teeth in 1-2 rows, inner row not very large;2-3 large canines in single row at front between top jaws.

Green to green-brown; with small squarish dark spots; gill opening in a large round black spot.

Size: 300 cm.

Habitat: rocky and coral reefs.

Depth: 1-50 m.

Indo-Pacific; vagrant at Cocos, NW Costa Rica, western Panama and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 50 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=11; Southern limit=-2; Western limit=-93; Eastern limit=-82; Latitudinal range=13; Longitudinal range=11.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 300 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s) only; Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Vagrant.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bleeker,., 1859., Over eenige vischsoorten van de Zuidkust-wateren van Java., Natuurkd. Tijdschr. Neder. IndiŰ, 19:329-352.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gymnothorax&speciesname=javanicus ---> http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gymnothorax&speciesname=javanicus
http://192.134.151.83/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gymnothorax&speciesname=javanicus ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gymnothorax&speciesname=javanicus
https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Gymnothorax&speciesname=javanicus ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/summary/Gymnothorax-javanicus.html
Gymnothorax javanicus, Giant moray : fisheries, aquarium
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Gymnothorax javanicus ( Bleeker , 1859 )

Giant moray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnothorax javanicus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos | Google image Image of Gymnothorax javanicus (Giant moray) Gymnothorax javanicus
Picture by Patzner, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Anguilliformes (Eels and morays) > Muraenidae (Moray eels) > Muraeninae
Etymology: Gymnothorax: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, thorax, -akos = breast (Ref. 45335 ) .
More on author: Bleeker .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 30573 ). Tropical; 30°N - 25°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 33390 ) to the Marquesas and Oeno Atoll (Pitcairn Group), north to the Ryukyu and Hawaiian islands, south to New Caledonia and the Austral Islands.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710 ); max. published weight: 30.0 kg (Ref. 30404 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Vertebrae : 137 - 143. Juveniles are tan with numerous large black spots. Adults have black specks that grade into leopard-like spots behind the head and a black area surrounding the gill opening.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in lagoon and seaward reefs. Commonly seen species along deep drop-offs and slopes in Indonesian waters (Ref. 48635 ). Benthic (Ref. 58302 ). Juveniles more secretive and occur on intertidal reef flats (Ref. 37816 ). It feeds primarily on fishes and occasionally on crustaceans. This is the largest Indo-Pacific moray eel (Ref. 30404 ), perhaps reaching 3 m in length. Because of its position at the top of the reef's food chain it is often ciguatoxic. Attacks humans when provoked (Ref. 3132 ). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 10713. Solitary in reef holes (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Observations on prespawning behavior include a pair entwined around one another lying on the bottom of the reef area (Ref. 93344 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chen, H.-M., K.-T. Shao and C.T. Chen , 1994. A review of the muraenid eels (Family Muraenidae) from Taiwan with descriptions of twelve new records. Zool. Stud. 33(1):44-64. (Ref. 6934 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 17 August 2011

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690 )





Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: public aquariums FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 25.5 - 29, mean 28.1 °C (based on 902 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00052 (0.00033 - 0.00084), b=3.27 (3.14 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.9   ±0.64 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 200,000-300,000). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 13.9 [6.4, 22.6] mg/100g; Iron = 0.337 [0.184, 0.805] mg/100g; Protein = 18.8 [16.5, 21.5] %; Omega3 = 0.0798 [, ] g/100g; Selenium = 66.2 [30.4, 144.6] ╬╝g/100g; VitaminA = 33.1 [8.1, 132.9] ╬╝g/100g; Zinc = 0.763 [0.513, 1.122] mg/100g (wet weight);

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