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Gymnura afuerae (Hildebrand, 1946)
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Gymnura afuerae
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gymnura afuerae

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Gymnura afuerae
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Gymnura afuerae

Main identification features
  • snout long
  • disc besides eyes - straight edges
  • scattered large dark-edged pale spots
Peruvian butterfly-ray

Disc rhomboidal, width >> length; pectorals not separated from head; snout very bluntly pointed; snout relatively long - distance from line between front of eyes to snout tip > distance between eyes; front margin of disc not convex besides eyes; tail very short, << length of disc; no dorsal fin; no tail fin.

Upper surface brown, sometimes with scattered dark-ringed pale spots the size of the pupil; underside yellowish to whitish, with a broad brown side and rear margins.

Size: 31 cm long; 39 cm wide.

Habitat: sandy and muddy bottoms in estuaries.

Depth: to 30 m.

Costa Rica to northern Peru.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 30 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); bony fishes.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=11; Southern limit=-7; Western limit=-86; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=18; Longitudinal range=8.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva; No pelagic phase.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 39 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Continent only; TEP endemic; Continental TEP endemic; Panamic province endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;

Links to other sites

  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Chirichigno, F.N. and Vélez, J.D., 1998., Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Perú (Segunda edición, revisada y actualizada)., Instituto del Mar del Peru, Informe., Dec:1-496.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Mould, B., 1994., A world list of rays. The scientific nomenclature and distribution of the recent Batoidea (Batoidea, Elasmobranchii, Chondrichthyes)., University of Nottingham:70.


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