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Helianthus annuus L.
SUNFLOWER
Common sunflower

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Asteraceae   Helianthus

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Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus

Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus
Helianthus annuus
© Copyright Mel Harte 2010 · 3
Helianthus annuus

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Agaricaceae  Phoma herbarum @ BPI (3)
Agromyzidae  Melanagromyza @ UCRC_ENT (5)
Albuginaceae  Albugo tragopogonis @ BPI (1)
Aleyrodidae  Bemisia tabaci @ CSCA_TCN (3)

Trialeurodes abutiloneus @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Andrenidae  Andrena accepta @ BBSL (4); I_JSA (4); UCRC_ENT (7)

Andrena chromotricha @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Andrena commoda @ CUIC_ENT (2)

Andrena haynesi @ BBSL (5); UCRC_ENT (2)

Andrena helianthi @ BBSL (25); AMNH_BEE (41); UCMS_ENT (1); UCRC_ENT (1)

Andrena imitatrix @ RUAC_ENT (2)

Calliopsis chlorops @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Calliopsis scutellaris @ BBSL (1)

Panurginus phaceliae @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Perdita albipennis @ BBSL (26); UCRC_ENT (1)

Perdita bequaerti @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Perdita bruneri @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Perdita gerhardi @ BBSL (1)

Perdita lingualis @ BBSL (11); UCRC_ENT (21)

Perdita nigroviridis @ UCRC_ENT (2)

Perdita verbesinae @ BBSL (2); UCRC_ENT (10)

Protandrena albitarsis @ BBSL (2)

Protandrena innuptus @ BBSL (2)

Protandrena irregularis @ BBSL (14)

Protandrena perlaevis @ BBSL (22)

Protandrena verbesinae @ BBSL (1)

Pseudopanurgus aethiops @ BBSL (36); I_JSA (2)

Pseudopanurgus albitarsis @ I_JDZ (2)

Pseudopanurgus simulans @ AMNH_BEE (10)
Anthocoridae  Xylocoris galactinus @ NCSU_ENT (1)
Aphelinidae  Aphelinus @ UCRC_ENT (2)
Aphididae  Aphis ( @ CSUC_TCN (7); NCSU_ENT (34); CSCA_TCN (14)

Brachycaudus ( @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Hyalopterus pruni @ CSCA_TCN (2)

Illinoia ( @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Macrosiphum ( @ NCSU (1); CSCA_TCN (1)

Rhopalosiphum solani @ CSUC_TCN (1)

Uroleucon ( @ AMNH_PBI (7); NCSU (6)
Apidae  Anthophora albata @ BBSL (8)

Anthophora californica @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Anthophora curta @ BBSL (1)

Anthophora urbana @ BBSL (7)

Anthophorula compactula @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Anthophorula crenulata @ BBSL (1)

Anthophorula pygmaea @ BBSL (1)

Apis mellifera @ BBSL (4); UCMS_ENT (2)

Bombus appositus @ BBSL (3)

Bombus californicus @ UCRC_ENT (2); EMEC (4)

Bombus centralis @ BBSL__JPS (1)

Bombus crotchii @ AMNH_BEE (2); UCRC_ENT (3); EMEC (1); LACM_ENTB (4)

Bombus fervidus @ BBSL (3); AMNH_BEE (2); BMEC_ENT (4); EMEC (10)

Bombus griseocollis @ AMNH_BEE (8); BMEC_ENT (1)

Bombus huntii @ BBSL__JPS (5); BBSL (2)

Bombus morrisoni @ BBSL__JPS (2); BBSL (8); BMEC_ENT (11); EMEC (62)

Bombus pensylvanicus @ CSCA (4); UCRC_ENT (23); EMEC (301)

Bombus rufocinctus @ BBSL__JPS (1); AMNH_BEE (4)

Bombus sonorus @ BBSL (7); BMEC_ENT (1)

Bombus ternarius @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Bombus terrestris @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Bombus vagans @ AMNH_BEE (3)

Bombus vosnesenskii @ CSCA (1)

Diadasia consociata @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Diadasia enavata @ CSCA (2); BBSL (28); AMNH_BEE (34); UCRC_ENT (58)

Diadasia megamorpha @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Diadasia opuntiae @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Diadasia rinconis @ UCRC_ENT (5)

Ericrocis lata @ BBSL (1)

Exomalopsis solani @ BBSL (1)

Melissodes agilis @ BBSL (50); AMNH_BEE (27); I_JSA (1)

Melissodes appressa @ BBSL (2)

Melissodes bidentis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Melissodes gelida @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Melissodes opuntiella @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Melissodes robustior @ BBSL (1); AMNH_BEE (1)

Melissodes semilupina @ BBSL (2)

Melissodes snowii @ BBSL (10)

Melissodes submenuacha @ BBSL (1)

Melissodes tepaneca @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Melissodes utahensis @ BBSL (8)

Melissodes verbesinarum @ BBSL (2)

Nomada adducta @ BBSL (1); AMNH_BEE (3)

Nomada snowii @ BBSL (1)

Nomada texana @ BBSL (1)

Nomada utahensis @ BBSL (39)

Nomada vincta @ BBSL (4)

Svastra helianthelli @ BBSL (6)

Svastra machaerantherae @ BBSL (8)

Svastra obliqua @ BBSL (19); I_JSA (1); UCRC_ENT (1)

Syntrichalonia exquisita @ BBSL (1)

Triepeolus concavus @ BBSL (1); I_JSA (3)

Triepeolus eldredi @ BBSL (1)

Triepeolus helianthi @ BBSL (8)

Triepeolus kathrynae @ BBSL (1)

Triepeolus trichopygus @ BBSL (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Macrophoma helianthi @ BPI (1)
Chaetomiaceae  Chaetomium reflexum @ BPI (1)
Chrysomelidae  Diabrotica undecimpunctata @ I_LKD (1)
Cicadellidae  Empoasca ( @ UCR_ENT (3)

Gyponana ( @ UCR_ENT (2)

Texananus ( @ UCR_ENT (1)
Cixiidae  Melanoliarus zyxus @ UCR_ENT (4)
Coccinellidae  Coccinella septempunctata @ I_LB (1)

Hippodamia convergens @ I_LB (7)
Colletidae  Colletes gypsicolens @ BBSL (7)
Coreidae  Leptoglossus phyllopus @ NCSU (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium atrum @ BPI (1)
Delphacidae  Stobaera tricarinata @ UDCC_TCN (1)
Dermateaceae  Cylindrosporium chrysanthemi @ BPI (1)

Mollisia fuscorubra @ BPI (1)

Mollisia lilacina @ BPI (2)

Pyrenopeziza fusco-rubra @ BPI (1)
Diaporthaceae  Diaporthe orthoceras @ BPI (1)
Entylomataceae  Entyloma polysporum @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Erysiphe cichoracearum @ BPI (28)

Sphaerotheca humuli @ BPI (2)
Flatidae  Cyarda @ UDCC_TCN (1)
Geocoridae  Geocoris pallens @ UCR_ENT (42)

Geocoris punctipes @ UCR_ENT (11)
Halictidae  Agapostemon angelicus @ BBSL (6)

Agapostemon femoratus @ BBSL (1)

Agapostemon melliventris @ BBSL (29); AMNH_BEE (3)

Agapostemon texanus @ BBSL (1)

Agapostemon tyleri @ BBSL (4)

Agapostemon virescens @ BBSL (3)

Dieunomia heteropoda @ BBSL (7); UCRC_ENT (8)

Dieunomia nevadensis @ BBSL (1)

Dieunomia triangulifera @ BBSL (19)

Dufourea marginata @ BBSL (55)

Halictus ligatus @ BBSL (25); AMNH_BEE (13)

Halictus tripartitus @ BBSL (2)

Lasioglossum clematisellum @ BBSL (2)

Lasioglossum hudsoniellum @ BBSL (1)

Lasioglossum incompletum @ BBSL (1)

Lasioglossum oleosus @ BBSL (2)

Lasioglossum sp_metallic @ UCMS_ENT (1)

Lasioglossum tegulariforme @ BBSL (1)
Largidae  Largus cinctus @ UCR_ENT (4)
Lygaeidae  Nysius raphanus @ UCR_ENT (2)
Megachilidae  Coelioxys octodentata @ BBSL (1)

Coelioxys rufitarsis @ BBSL (2); AMNH_BEE (1)

Dianthidium curvatum @ BBSL (7); UCRC_ENT (1)

Dianthidium subparvum @ BBSL (3)

Heriades carinatus @ BBSL (1)

Megachile adelphodonta @ BBSL (4)

Megachile agustini @ BBSL (2); UCRC_ENT (4)

Megachile brevis @ BBSL (3); UCRC_ENT (1)

Megachile centuncularis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Megachile dentitarsus @ BBSL (1)

Megachile discorhina @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Megachile fortis @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Megachile gentilis @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Megachile hookeri @ BBSL (1)

Megachile inimica @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Megachile latimanus @ AMNH_BEE (7)

Megachile manifesta @ BBSL (1)

Megachile montivaga @ BBSL (4); AMNH_BEE (1); UCRC_ENT (6)

Megachile nevadensis @ BBSL (1)

Megachile parallela @ BBSL (31); AMNH_BEE (12); UCRC_ENT (4)

Megachile perihirta @ UCRC_ENT (5)

Megachile petulans @ RUAC_ENT (1)

Megachile policaris @ BBSL (1); UCRC_ENT (3)

Megachile rossi @ BBSL (1)

Megachile soledadensis @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Megachile texana @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Osmia subaustralis @ BBSL (1)

Paranthidium jugatorium @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Stelis perpulchra @ BBSL__DAVIS (1); BBSL (1)

Trachusa cordaticeps @ BBSL (1)

Trachusa occidentalis @ BBSL (3)

Trachusa zebrata @ BBSL (3)
Melittidae  Hesperapis carinata @ BBSL (15)

Hesperapis rhodocerata @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Hesperapis wilmattae @ UCRC_ENT (1)
Membracidae  Entylia carinata @ UDCC_TCN (8); NCSU (1)

Tortistilus albidosparsus @ UCR_ENT (24)

Vanduzea segmentata @ UCR_ENT (6)
Miridae  Calocoris @ AMNH_ENT (1)

Chlamydatus associatus @ UCR_ENT (8)

Lygus elisus @ UCR_ENT (7); AMNH_IZC (1)

Lygus hesperus @ UCR_ENT (32)

Reuteroscopus unknown @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Mucoraceae  Rhizopus nigricans @ BPI (1)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora helianthicola @ BPI (1)

Cercospora pachypus @ BPI (5)

Heterosporium saccardoi @ BPI (1)

Septoria helianthi @ BPI (32)
Nymphalidae  Danaus gilippus @ I_JSA (1)
Pentatomidae  Brochymena parva @ AMNH_IZC (1)

Chlorochroa ligata @ UCR_ENT (1)

Chlorochroa sayi @ UCR_ENT (3)

Murgantia histrionica @ UCR_ENT (14)

Perillus bioculatus @ UCR_ENT (1)
Peronosporaceae  Plasmopara halstedii @ BPI (23)
Pezizaceae  Peziza fuscorubra @ BPI (1)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Ophiobolus fulgidus @ BPI (6)

Ophiobolus porphyrogonus @ BPI (1)
Phyllachoraceae  Phyllachora effusa @ BPI (1)
Pleomassariaceae  Helminthosporium @ BPI (1)
Pleosporaceae  Alternaria helianthi @ BPI (2)

Alternaria helianthinficiens @ BPI (1)

Alternaria heliophytonis @ BPI (1)

Alternaria roseogrisea @ BPI (1)

Alternaria tenuis @ 446963B (1); 446963A (1)

Epicoccum vulgare @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Poria confusa @ BPI (1)
Pseudococcidae  Phenacoccus solani @ CSCA_TCN (3)

Rhizoecus californicus @ CSCA_TCN (1)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia discoidearum @ BPI (3)

Puccinia enceliae @ BPI (1)

Puccinia extensicola @ BPI (1)

Puccinia helianthi-mollis @ BPI (15)

Puccinia helianthi @ 073196B (1); 073196A (1); BPI (418)

Puccinia tanaceti @ BPI (34)
Pythiaceae  Pythium debaryanum @ BPI (1)
Reduviidae  Apiomerus spissipes @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Phymata americana @ UCR_ENT (2)

Phymata @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Sinea anacantha @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Sinea complexa @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Sinea confusa @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Sinea diadema @ AMNH_PBI (8)

Zelus renardii @ AMNH_PBI (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Botrytis cinerea @ BPI (1)

Sclerotinia perplexa @ BPI (1)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum @ BPI (4)

Sclerotinia @ BPI (1)
Thyreocoridae  Galgupha loboprostethia @ NCSU (3)
Tingidae  Corythucha cydoniae @ MEMU_ENT (3)

Corythucha marmorata @ MEMU_ENT (3)

Corythucha morrilli @ UCR_ENT (1)

Gargaphia solani @ NCSU (3)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium scutula @ BPI (1)
Typhulaceae  Sclerotium bataticola @ BPI (1)

Sclerotium compactum @ BPI (2)
Ulidiidae  Physiphora demandata @ UCRC_ENT (1)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium compositarum @ BPI (2)
Valsaceae  Diplodina helianthi @ BPI (1)
_  07-27-2012Image 086 @ I_SUR (1)

Eucarazzia elegans @ CSCA_TCN (1)

Macrophomina phaseoli @ 359714A (1)

Macrophomina phaseolina @ 359714B (1); BPI (43)

Sporidesmium @ BPI (1)

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FNA Vol. 21 Page 142, 145, 148 , 149 , 150, 153, 154, 1 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 21 | Asteraceae | Helianthus

3. Helianthus annuus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 904. 1753.

Common sunflower

Helianthus annuus subsp. jaegeri (Heiser) Heiser; H. annuus subsp. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindley) Cockerell; H. annuus var. lenticularis (Douglas ex Lindley) Steyermark; H. annuus var. macrocarpus (de Candolle) Cockerell; H. annuus subsp. texanus Heiser; H. aridus Rydberg; H. jaegeri Heiser; H. lenticularis Douglas ex Lindley; H. macrocarpus de Candolle

Annuals, 100—300 cm. Stems erect, usually hispid. Leaves mostly cauline; mostly alternate; petioles 2—20 cm; blades lance-ovate to ovate, 10—40 × 5—40 cm, bases cuneate to subcordate or cordate, margins serrate, abaxial faces usually ± hispid, sometimes gland-dotted . Heads 1—9. Peduncles 2—20 cm. Involucres hemispheric or broader, 15—40(—200+) mm diam. Phyllaries 20—30(—100+), ovate to lance-ovate, 13—25 × (3—)5—8 mm, (margins usually ciliate) apices abruptly narrowed, long-acuminate, abaxial faces usually hirsute to hispid, rarely glabrate or glabrous, usually gland-dotted. Paleae 9—11 mm, 3-toothed (middle teeth long-acuminate, glabrous or hispid). Ray florets (13—)17—30(—100+); laminae 25—50 mm. Disc florets 150+(—1000+); corollas 5—8 mm (throats ± bulbous at bases), lobes usually reddish, sometimes yellow ; anthers brownish to black, appendages yellow or dark (style branches yellow) . Cypselae (3—)4—5(—15) mm, glabrate ; pappi of 2 lanceolate scales 2—3.5 mm plus 0—4 obtuse scales 0.5—1 mm. 2 n = 34.

Flowering summer—fall. Open areas; 0—3000 m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.W.T., N.S., Ont ., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Mexico; intoduced nearly worldwide.

Helianthus annuus is widely distributed, including weedy, cultivated, and escaped plants. It is the only native North American species to become a major agronomic crop. Despite its considerable variability, attempts have failed to produce a widely adopted infraspecific system of classification. Forms with red-colored ray laminae, known from cultivation and occasionally seen escaped, trace their ancestry to a single original mutant plant. It hybridizes with many of the other annual species.

Updated: 2024-04-12 20:25:20 gmt
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