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Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858
PACIFIC SEAHORSE
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Syngnathidae   Hippocampus

Hippocampus ingens
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Hippocampus ingens

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Hippocampus ingens
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Hippocampus ingens
Hippocampus ingens
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Hippocampus ingens

Hippocampus ingens
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Hippocampus ingens
Hippocampus ingens
© Copyright Clay Bryce, 2006 · 0
Hippocampus ingens

Hippocampus ingens
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Hippocampus ingens
español

Overview
Main identification features Dorsal rays 19-21; anal rays 4; pectoral rays 15-17; body rings 11-12 + 38-40; tail prehensile; snout elongate; coronet (crown-like structure on top of head) moderately high becoming somewhat lower in large males; tubercles generally well developed, but becoming obscure in large males.

Color variable according to its surroundings (weed, rock, coral, etc.); generally various shades of red, yellow, tan, brown, grey, black, or green; often with small blackish and white spots or whitish cross bands.

Size: grows to about 30 cm.

Inhabits weed beds, sea-whips and gorgonians. Evidently also associates with flotsam because it has been collected at the surface and from the stomachs of tunas.

Depth: 1-60 m.

Southern California through the Gulf of California to Peru, including Cocos, Malpelo and the Galapagos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Appendix II.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 60 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: zooplankton; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-13; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-76; Latitudinal range=46; Longitudinal range=42.
Egg Type: Brooded; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Corals; Macroalgae; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Flotsam; Reef and soft bottom.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Vulnerable; Listed.
Length Max: 30 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Brackish.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Acosta Salmón , H. and Martínez Fernández, E., 2000., Propuesta preliminar ... de concha nacar (Pteria sterna Gould, 1851) en la Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, …., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:95-106.
  • Almenara Roldán, S. C., 2000., Demanda internacional en el manejo de especies marinas de ornato. En Aburto Oropeza, O. y C. A. Sánchez Ortiz (Eds.). Recursos arrecifales del Golfo de California, estrategias de manejo para las especies marinas de ornato., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:30-38.
  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1928., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Nematognathi, Apodes, Isospondyli, Synentognathi, and Thoracostraci from Panama to Lower California with a generic analysis of the Exocoetidae., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(2):1-25.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Cuesta, T.C., 1932., Lista de los peces de las costas de la Baja California., Inst. Biol. Mexico, Anal, 3(1):75-80.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Edgar, G.J. Banks, S., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M. and Martínez, C., 2004., Regional biogeography of shallow reef fish and macro-invertebrate communities in the Galapagos archipelago., Journal of Biogeography, 31:1107-1124.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Girard, C., 1858., Fishes. In General report upon zoology fo the several Pacific railrad routes, 1857., U. S. Senate Misc. Doc., (78):1-400.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1880., Notes on a collection of fishes from San Diego, California., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 3:23-34.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Lourie , S. A. , Vincent , A. C. J. and Hall, H. J., 1999., Seahorses: An identification guide to the world's species and their conservation., Dorling Print Limited, Dorling House:214pp.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Orellana, J.J., 1985., Marine Fishes of Los Cóbanos: Fishes of El Salvador., Sigma Found:126pp.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Phillips, P. C., 1981., Annotated Checklist of Fishes at Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 29:45-58.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Sánchez Ortíz , C. , Arreola Robles , J. L. , Aburto Oropeza , O. and Cortés Hernández, M., 1997., Peces de arrecife en la región de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:189-200.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Hippocampus ingens, Pacific seahorse : fisheries, aquarium
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Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Hippocampus ingens Girard , 1858

Pacific seahorse Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2050
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Hippocampus ingens   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos | Google image Image of Hippocampus ingens (Pacific seahorse) Hippocampus ingens
Picture by Lavan, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Syngnathiformes (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335 ) .
More on author: Girard .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 30915 ), usually 3 - 18 m (Ref. 5227 ). Subtropical; 37°N - 22°S, 123°W - 70°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: confirmed records from San Diego in California, USA to Peru including the Galapagos Islands. Reported from the San Francisco Bay by Alexander Agassiz (Ron Fritzsche, pers.comm. 08/09).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 5.4   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 18-21.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Nocturnal. Occur in offshore waters, mostly captured by dredging at 10 m or deeper. Occasionally caught at surface. Are often camouflaged within the branches of gorgonians and black coral trees where they are seen to curl their tail around the branches (Ref. 5227 ). Have been found in the stomachs of Pacific yellowfin tuna and bluefin tuna (Ref. 30915 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205 ). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205 ). Gestation period is 14-15 days depending on temperature (Ref. 30915 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Lourie, S.A., R.A. Pollom and S.J. Foster , 2016. A global revision of the seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 (Actinopterygii: Syngnathiformes): taxonomy and biogeography with recommendations for further research. Zootaxa 4146(1):1-66. (Ref. 115213 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2cd); Date assessed: 05 December 2016

CITES

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 19.1 - 28.5, mean 24.3 °C (based on 131 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00177 - 0.01127), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.3   ±0.38 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.3-0.4). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (20 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Unknown . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 71.1 [33.9, 167.8] mg/100g; Iron = 1.28 [0.60, 2.43] mg/100g; Protein = 18.7 [17.3, 20.0] %; Omega3 = 0.164 [0.069, 0.364] g/100g; Selenium = 32.1 [12.6, 86.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 22.8 [5.6, 102.3] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.08 [0.61, 1.78] mg/100g (wet weight);

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