Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002);
The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.4(FAO,1999)
Rings: 11+36 (34-38). Snout length: 2.3 (2.0-2.6) in head length. Dorsal fin rays: 17-18 covering 2+1 rings. Pectoral fin rays: 16 (15-18). Coronet: low-medium, rounded, overhanging at the back, often with a cup-like depression in the top; sometimes with broad flanges; not spiny. Spines: low, rounded bumps only. Other distinctive characters: deep head; deep body; thick snout. Color pattern: often totally black with a grainy texture; alternatively pale yellow or cream with fairly large, dark spots (especially females); may be sandy colored, blending in with the surroundings.
Inhabits seagrass and marine algae areas of estuaries and seaward reefs; also on steep mud slopes. Found in open water and attached to drifting Sargassum up to 20 km from shore. Adults in pairs.
Distributed in the Indo-Pacific from Pakistan and India to southern Japan, Hawaii, and the Society Islands. It is mainly found in northern and southern Taiwanese waters.
Very popular aquarium fish. Highly valued species in traditional Chinese medicine. Has been reared in captivity. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04).
Using these photos:
A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the
link under the thumbnail. See also:
Using the Photos in CalPhotos