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Inimicus didactylus (Pallas, 1769)
LONGSNOUT STINGERFISH
Longsnout Stinger; Scorpaena didactyla Pallas, 1769; Bearded Ghoul

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Synanceiidae   Inimicus


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/522b6455-a611-4f0b-aa29-b7d6aa5566c9 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/522b6455-a611-4f0b-aa29-b7d6aa5566c9
https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/522b6455-a611-4f0b-aa29-b7d6aa5566c9 ---> http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/4a7e927e-d599-4f98-ac33-091c3f4d9b20;jsessionid=8912CE185537F77984C15E12FF1D3274
http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/4a7e927e-d599-4f98-ac33-091c3f4d9b20;jsessionid=8912CE185537F77984C15E12FF1D3274 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/4a7e927e-d599-4f98-ac33-091c3f4d9b20;jsessionid=8912CE185537F77984C15E12FF1D3274
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Scorpaeniformes  
 Family Scorpaenidae  
 Genus Inimicus  
  Inimicus didactylus    (Pallas, 1769) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Scorpaena didactyla   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993) Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text) Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002) Fishbase(2008)
Character: Dorsal fin with XV-XVII spines and 7-9 soft rays; Anal fin with II spines and 10-12 soft rays. Body colors highly variable and best identified by the patterns on the fins. Lower 2 pectoral rays are entirely free and used as "walking" legs and the inner face of the fin is brightly colored. 
Habitat: Found on open sandy or silty substrates of lagoon and seaward reefs. Often buries itself and easily overlooked. Uses pectoral fins to startle predators and shows color during courtship. Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans. The venom of this fish can be  
Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Thailand to Vanuatu, north to the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan and southeast China. 
Utility: Not commercial food species, commercial aquarium species because of it's beautiful color. 
Name Code: 382838
   Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Inimicus+didactylus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Inimicus+didactylus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 10
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Inimicus didactylus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Bearded Ghoul Fish
ID: 0091 3183 0987 0030 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Bearded Ghoul Fish
ID: 0091 3183 0921 0103 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Bearded Ghoul Fish
ID: 0091 3183 0921 0102 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Bearded Ghoul Fish
ID: 0091 3183 0987 0031 [detail]
Gerald and Buff Corsi
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Spiny Devilfish
ID: 0000 0000 0213 3417 [detail]
© 2013 Dr. Paddy Ryan

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Spiny Devilfish
ID: 0000 0000 0213 3418 [detail]
© 2013 Dr. Paddy Ryan

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
ID: 0000 0000 0213 3420 [detail]
© 2013 Dr. Paddy Ryan

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Spiny Devilfish
ID: 0000 0000 0213 3421 [detail]
© 2013 Dr. Paddy Ryan

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Sea Goblin
ID: 0000 0000 1019 1133 [detail]
© 2019 Simon J. Tonge

Inimicus didactylus
Inimicus didactylus
Sea Goblin
ID: 0000 0000 1019 1132 [detail]
© 2019 Simon J. Tonge

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Inimicus&speciesname=didactylus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Inimicus&speciesname=didactylus
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Inimicus&speciesname=didactylus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Inimicus-didactylus.html

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Inimicus didactylus (Pallas , 1769)

Bearded ghoul Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Inimicus didactylus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Inimicus didactylus (Bearded ghoul) Inimicus didactylus
Picture by Petrinos, C.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Choridactylinae
Etymology: Inimicus: Latin, inimicus = enemy (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Pallas .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 80 m (Ref. 37816 ).   Tropical; 25°N - 21°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Thailand to Vanuatu, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 559 ) and southeast China, south to Australia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 15 - 17; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7-9; Anal spines : 2; Anal soft rays : 10 - 12. Body colors highly variable and best identified by the patterns on the fins (Ref. 48635 ). Lower 2 pectoral rays are entirely free and used as "walking" legs and the inner face of the fin is brightly colored (Ref. 37816 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on open sandy or silty substrates of lagoon and seaward reefs. Often buries itself and easily overlooked. Uses pectoral fins to startle predators and shows color during courtship (Ref. 48635 ). Feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 9710 ). The venom of this fish can be deadly to man. Its ability to camouflage itself by living half-buried presents a real danger. Solitary on sand and mud bottoms (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Myers, R.F. , 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 1602 )




Human uses

Aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 26.3 - 29, mean 28.2 (based on 1088 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5010   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00787 - 0.04830), b=2.97 (2.75 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.0   ±0.66 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .

Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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