Extracted from Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), II: Revision of Sphecogastra Ashmead, Floral Specialists of Onagraceae by McGinley, J. R. (2003).|
Halictus lusorius Cresson, 1872:252 [two females].—Dalla Torre, 1896:69 [catalog].—Cockerell, 1897:166 [one female, west fork of Gila River, New Mexico, July 16].—Crawford, 1907:186 [noted that lusorius was excluded from key].
Halictus amicus, var. a, Cockerell, 1901:126 [female].
Halictusgalpinsiae Cockerell, 1903:342 [female].—1906a:294 [recorded from Pecos, Las Vegas, New Mexico].—1907b: 119 [locality, floral records; contrasted with H. aberrans].—1919:288 [recorded from Rocky Mountain National Park, just above timberline].—Crawford, 1907:186-188 [key].— Graenicher, 1911:224 [compared with H. aberrans]. [New synonymy.]
Halictus gelidus Vachal, 1904:481 [male].—Crawford, 1907:188 [synonymy].
Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) lusorium.—Michener, 1951:1111 [catalog].
Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) galpinsiae.—Linsley and MacSwain, 1962:45 [taxonomy].—Linsley et al., 1963:19, 42, 43 [pollen records from Gaura and Oenothera].—Gregory, 1964:394 [floral records].—Linsley et al., 1973:38, 39 [pollen records from Oenothera].
Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) lusorium.—Linsley and MacSwain, 1962:45 [taxonomy].
Evylaeus galpinsiae.—Bohart and Youssef, 1976:185-234 [nesting biology, life history, taxonomy].
Evylaeus lusorius—Hurd, 1979:1960 [catalog].—Moure and Hurd, 1987:75 [catalog].
Lasioglossum lusorius.—Poole, 1996:578 [checklist].
Type Material.—The female lectotype of Halictus lusorius, herein designated, is deposited in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The specimen is in good condition but is missing the three distal tarsomeres of the left hind leg, and the hairs over most of the body are slightly soiled and matted. Label data are as follows: "Tex.[Texas]/TYPE No. 2115 [red label]/Halictus lusorius 667 Cr [handwritten on folded label]/ANSP [yellow label]/LECTOTYPE Halictus lusorius Cresson des. [designated by] McGinley [red label]."
The female holotype of Halictus galpinsiae, in the collection of the University of Colorado, Boulder, is in excellent condition and is labeled "Pecos. N.M.[New Mexico], June 22. (Ckll.)/Collecting pollen from Galpinsia fendleri [= Calylophus hartwegii fendleri\, 7.30 P.M./Halictus galpinsiae Ckll. type" [handwritten with red-inked borders].
Vachal's male holotype of Halictus gelidus is in the collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien (Vienna, Austria). The specimen is in good condition but is missing the five distal flagellomeres of the right antenna; the terminalia have been extruded, which apparently resulted in soiling of the pleurae, portion of the left scutum, and left gena. Label data are as follows: "Morrison Colorado 1879.1./gelidus Vachal det.[determined] J. Vachal/H. gelidus Vach.[Vachal]/LASlOGLOSSUM o Evylaeus gelidum (Vach. 1906) Holotypus, Unikum det. A.W. Ebmer 1980" [red-inked right border].
Distribution (Figure 92).—See "Distribution" for S. aberrans.
Figure 92.—Distribution of Sphecodogastra lusoria (bullets) and S. antio-chensis (circled dot).
Diagnosis.—The short, adpressed pubescence on the pleura, beneath longer hairs will distinguish the females of Sphecodogastra lusoria and S. potosi from other Sphecodogastra having dark abdomens. The head of female S. lusoria is only moderately broad (Figure 93) and has short mandibles that at most extend as far as the opposing clypeal angle (e.g., Figure 14). Sphecodogastra potosi has a conspicuously broad head (Figure 18) and moderately elongate mandibles that slightly exceed the opposing clypeal angles.
Males of both & lusoria and S. antiochensis have distinctive antennal sensillar patterns: flagellomeres are primarily covered by plate sensillae, with peg sensillae found only on the anterior surface and further limited to areas immediately adjacent to flagellomere margins (Figures 42,76). This pattern can be seen through the light microscope, where the areas with peg sensillae appear lighter or darker than the surrounding surfaces. In addition, these are the only males having short, adpressed hairs extending from the clypeal base to the vertex (in other species, the short, adpressed hairs do not reach the vertex, extending only slightly above the antennae). The only detected morphological differences between the males of these two species are
that S. antiochensis are larger (body length mean = 8.5 mm versus 7.2 mm for S. lusoria) and have slightly denser punctation on tergum 1 than do the males of S. lusoria (Figures 49, 50). The easiest way to differentiate these species is to consider distribution data; the two are not known to be sympatric—S. antiochensis is found only in the Antioch area of California (Figure 92) where 5. lusoria is not known to occur.
Description.—female: (1) Length 7.5-9.1 mm (mean = 8.4, n = 5); (2) wing length 2.4-2.7 mm (mean = 2.6, n = 5); (3) abdominal width 2.4-2.7 mm (mean = 2.5, n = 5).
Structure: (4) Flead moderately rounded (Figure 93); length/width ratio 0.99-1.40 (mean = 1.07, n = 5). (5) Gena, at
midpoint, slightly exceeded by width of compound eye. (9) Clypeus projecting approximately 0.70 times its length below lower margin of eyes; (11) clypeal surface without median longitudinal sulcation. (13) Ocular-ocellar distance slightly greater than distance between lateral ocellus and hind margin of vertex (ocular-ocellar space approximately 1.5 times lateral ocellar diameter); (14) distance between lateral ocelli slightly exceeding ocular-ocellar distance. (16) Inner margins of compound eyes converging below. (21) Scape reaching top of vertex; (22) pedicel subequal in length to flageilomere 1. (30) Mandible moderate in length, extending to opposing clypeal angle.
(40) Dorsal surface of propodeum about 0.78 times the length of scutellum and approximately 1.5 times the length of metanotum; (44) lateral propodeal carinae well developed over three-fourths of propodeum, often reaching dorsal propodeal surface (weakly developed in some specimens). (45) Inner hind tibial spur with 4 or 5 moderately elongate teeth (Figure 61).
(46) Lateral edge of metasomal T2 broadly rounded anteriorly, becoming straight to faintly sinuate posteriorly.
Sculpture: (51) Supraclypea! area polished, (52) sparsely punctate, many punctures separated by 3-4 times their diameters (Figure 23). (53) Clypeus mostly polished (sometimes with obscure tessellation basally), (54) with large, widely spaced punctures over apical half. (55) Hypostoma striolatc posteriorly, becoming smooth and shiny on anterior half.
(56) Mesoscutum mostly shiny and polished; tessellation, if present, confined to anterior one-fourth; (57) punctation as in Figure 98, most punctures separated by 1-2 times their diameters. (63) Dorsal surface of propodeum rugulose (Figure 97), (64) surface atveolatcd. (65) Tl shiny and polished; (66) punctation extremely fine, very sparse; punctures separated by 2-3 times their diameters.
Coloration: (67) Abdomen dark brown. (69) Flagellum brown to amber vcntrally. (70) Tegula light brown to yellow-translucent. (71) Wing membrane hyaline; veins and stigma pale yellowish amber. (72) Legs dark brown.
Vestiture: (74) Hairs on head white. (75) Pubescence on thorax white; (76) mcsoscutal hairs moderately short, subequal in length to median ocellar diameter; mesoscutum and especially pleuron with short, adpressed hairs. (81) Basal hair bands on T2-T4 present, covering basal one-fourth of tergal surface; moderately developed apical hair bands on T3 and T4.
MALE: As described for female except as follows: (1) length 6.7-8.0 mm (mean = 7.2, n = 5); (2) wing length 1.6-2.0 mm (mean = 1.8, n = 5); (3) abdominal width 1.3-1.7 mm (mean = 1.5, n = 5). (4) Head (Figure 94) length/width ratio 1.07-1.10 (mean = 1.09, n - 5). (23) Flagellomere 2 approximately 2.0 times length of flagellomere I. (37) Median meso-scutal line not impressed. (70) Tegula yellow-translucent. (73) Short, adpressed hairs on face extending dorsad to vertex, enclosing median ocellus. (76) Mesoscutal hairs primarily short, adpressed (longer hairs relatively inconspicuous); plcuron with conspicuous short, suberect to adpressed hairs. (76a) Central depression of S6 only moderately developed (Figure 99).
Tcrminalia (Figures 100-103): (84) S7 lateral arms moderately well developed; (85) S8 moderately developed; apex of median process rounded; (89) retrorse membranous lobe narrow, becoming broader basally.
Flight Records (Figure 104).—Females of S. lusoria have been collected from March through October, with most records (87%) from May through July. Males appear to be active somewhat later than the females, with an apparent peak in June.
At Cornish, Utah, Bohart and Youssef (1976) reported flight activity for this species to range from late May until Septem-
Figure 99.—Sphecodogtistra luxoria, male S6.
ber. In most years two full generations and a partial third were produced. Bohart and Youssef indicated that the number of generations produced was primarily dependent on the availability of Oenothera pollen.
REMARKS.—See "Species Descriptions and Synonymies" in "Sphecodogastra Systematic History."
Specimens Examined.—918 (633 females, 285 males).
Canada, alberta: Cardston, 3 mi N; Medicine Hat.
MEXICO. CHIHUai-iua: Ahumada. DURANGO: Durango. GUANAJUATO: Silao. HIDALGO: TIaxcoapan, 5.6 mi E. SAN luis POTOSi: San Luis Potosi, 16 mi E. ZACATECAS: Fresnillo, 5 mi S; Fresnillo, 5-11 mi N; Juan Aldama.
United STATES: ARIZONA: Cochise Co.: Douglas, 1 mi E; Portal, 2 mi NE; Portal, 5 mi W (Southwestern Research Station); Coconino Co.: Cameron; Flagstaff, 10 mi N (San Francisco Mountains); Flagstaff, 20 mi N; Vermillion Cliffs; Maricopa Co.: Mesa, 1 mi N; Pima Co.: Continental; Yavapai Co.: Granite Dells, 4 mi N. CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co.: Bartlett; Big Pine, 3 mi N; Wyman Canyon (White Mountains); Merced Co.: Delhi, 2.5 mi S; Livingston, 2 mi SW; Riverside Co.: Hopkins Well, 2 mi W; Riverside; San Bernardino Co.: Apple Valley; Kelso Dunes. COLORADO: Adams Co.: Berkeley; Utah Junction; Boulder Co.: Beaver Reservoir; Boulder; Longs Peak; Ncderland; Niwot Ridge (near Ward); Pinecliffe; Ward, 2 mi E; Clark Co.: Lake George; Clear Creek Co.: Bear Creek Canyon; Clear Creek; Echo Lake (Mt. Evans); Guanella Pass; Custer Co.: Westcliff, 7.5 mi W; Denver Co.: Denver; Franktown, 5 mi SSE; Larkspur; El Paso Co.: Colorado Springs; Foster Ranch; Gunnison Co.: Mt. Princeton Hot Springs, 1 mi E; Sal-ida, 1.5 mi N (Highway 291); Gilpin Co.: Lump Gulch, near Gilpin; Huerfano Co.: Walsenburg, 3 mi W; Jefferson Co.: Coal Creek Canyon (7 mi S Crescent Village); Conifer; Larimer Co.: Buckhorn Creek; Estcs Park; Ft. Collins; Glen Haven; Hewlett Gulch (near Poudre Park); White Rock; Moffat Co.: Maybell; Montrose Co.: Cimarron, 1.2 mi W; Otero Co.: La Junta; Park Co.: Pennsylvania Mountain; Wilkerson Pass;
Sedgwick Co.: Julesburg; Teller Co.: Florissant; Weld Co.: Nunn (Pawnee Grassland Pasture); Roggen; county/coordinates unknown: Pingee Park; Platts Gunon. IDAHO: Franklin Co.: Preston, 5 mi W; St. Anthony; St. Anthony, 5.5 mi WNW; Owyhee Co.: Oreana. KANSAS: Barber Co.: Medicine Lodge; Medicine Lodge, 4 mi WNW; Ellis Co.: Hays; Finney Co.: Garden City; Kalvesta, 15 mi W; Greeley Co.: Tribune; Hamilton Co.: Syracuse; Logan Co.: Monument; Marshall Co.: Blue Rapids; Pratt Co.: Sawyer, 7 mi N, 3 mi E; Reno Co.: Me-dora (sand dunes); Scott Co.: Scott City; Sheridan Co.: Quinter, 9 mi N; Sumner Co.: Caldwell, 9 mi N; Wallace Co.: Wallace; Wichita Co.: Leoti. NEBRASKA: Chase Co.: Wauneta, 2 mi E; Morrill Co.: Bridgeport; Perkins Co.: Grant, 3 mi N; Saline Co.: Crete; Scotts Bluff Co.: Mitchell; Scottsbluff, 12 mi N; Sioux Co.: Agate. Nevada: Churchill Co.: Fallon, 14 mi S and 10 mi W; Fallon, 25 mi SE (Sand Mountain); Eureka Co.: Eureka, 70.8 mi N; Humboldt Co.: Winnemucca; Winnemucca, 11 mi N; Lander Co.: Austin; Austin, 9.5 mi W; Mineral Co.: Hawthorne; Washoe Co.: Reno, 10 mi S on Highway 395; Wad-sworth, 10-17 mi W. NEW MEXICO: Chaves Co.: Mesa, 2 mi NW; DeBaca Co.: Ft. Sumner, 10 mi S; Ft. Sumner, 15 mi E; Dona Ana Co.: Las Cruces; Eddy Co.: Carlsbad, 19 mi E; Guadalupe Co.: Dilia, 1 mi S; Santa Rosa; McKinley Co.: Gallup, 19 mi N; Otero Co.: Silver Spring Canyon (Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation); White Sands National Monument; Quay Co.: Logan; Logan, 6.3 mi NE; Roosevelt Co.: Clovis, 10 mi SW; San Miguel Co.: Las Vegas; Pecos; Sandoval Co.: Je-mez Springs; Santa Fe Co.: Santa Fe; Torrance Co.: Clines Corners; Union Co.: Grenville; Valencia Co.: Pueblo Laguna. NORTH DAKOTA: Golden Valley Co.: Beach; Richland Co.: Walcott, 11 mi W; Slope Co.: Marmarth. OKLAHOMA: Ellis Co.: Gage; Grady Co.: Rush Springs, 11 mi N; Jackson Co.: Altus; Kingfisher Co.: Dover, 4 mi N; Woodward Co.: Woodward; Woodward, 6.4 km (4 mi) NE. OREGON: Harney Co.: Denio, 2.5 mi NE; Umatilla Co.: Hermiston; Umatilla. SOUTH DAKOTA: Custer Co.: Custer; Jones Co.: Murdo, 10 mi S. TEXAS: Blanco Co.: Davis Ranch (NW part of county); Brewster Co.: Alpine; Big Bend National Park; Marathon, 39 mi S; Brown Co.: Bangs; Comal Co.: New Braunfels; Culberson Co.: Van Horn, 14.5 mi S; Fisher Co.: Roby, 9 mi E; Gillespie Co.: Cherry Spring; Harper; Hall Co.: Estelline, 3 mi W; Howard Co.: Big Spring; Jeff Davis Co.: Ft. Davis, 10 mi W; Kerr Co.: Kerrville; Lamb Co.: Olton; La Salle Co.: Cotulla; Encinal; Lee Co.: Fedor; Reeves Co.: Toyahvale, 19 mi S; Shackelford Co.: Albany, 16 mi N; Terrell Co.: Sanderson; Sanderson, 30 mi W; Ward Co.: Barstow, 3 mi SW; Monahans, 6.7 mi W; Monahans, 9.5 mi S; Wilbarger Co.: Vernon, 19 mi N. UTAH: Cache Co.: Cornish, 1.2 mi N; Carbon Co.: Greenriver, 15 mi S; Emery Co.: Calf Canyon (San Rafael Swell); Gilson Butte (3.2-4.0 mi N); Goblin Valley State Preserve (2 mi N); Little Gilson Butte (2 mi E); San Rafael Desert (Temple Mountain, 3 mi SSE); South Temple Wash (San Rafael Reef); Wild Horse Creek (N of Goblin Valley); Garfield Co.: Blind Trail Wash (SSE Notom); Lake Powell (4 mi NNW Bullfrog); Ticaboo, 6 mi S; Grand Co.: Crescent Junction;
Moab; Kane Co.: Bullfrog; Millard Co.: Hatton; San Juan Co.: Kane Springs (E of Natural Bridges National Monument); Tooele Co.: Tooele, 3.6 mi S; Uintah Co.: Bonanza; Washington Co.: Leeds Canyon; Shivwits. WASHINGTON: Benton Co.: Richland; Kittitas Co.: Yakima River (Morgan's Ferry). WYOMING: Albany Co.: Laramie, 8 mi SE (Dirt Farm); Carbon Co.: Kortes Dam; Converse Co.: Glenrock; Fremont Co.: Shoshoni, 5 mi N; Shoshoni, 5 mi S; Niobrara Co.: Lusk; Platte Co.: Chugwater; Glendo; Wheatland; Sweetwater Co.: Bitter Creek, 25 mi S; Weston Co.: Upton, 4 mi N.