John Ascher has noted that Mitchell's original description of the male of L. truncatum (listed as Evylaeus truncatus) was that actually of L. oenotherae. That description is listed below with permission.
MALE—Length 7-8 mm.; black, labrum, mandibles, apical portions of clypeus and legs in part, yellow; pubescence whitish, extremely short and thin; head slightly longer than broad; clypeus quite strongly protuberant, projecting somewhat more than one-half below suborbital line; eyes slightly convergent below; mandibles relatively short, labrum transverse, without a median projection; cheeks subequal to eyes in width; lateral ocelli sub- equally distant from eyes and edge of vertex; basal segment of flagellum slightly longer than pedicel, the second and following segments only slightly longer, much less than twice as long as broad, brownish below and only slightly darker above; face above antennae dull, densely and finely punctate in center, somewhat more finely and minutely punctate laterally and below where punctures are more distinctly separated but still very fine; vertex somewhat shining, obscurely sculptured, area between eyes and ocelli and upper portion of cheeks shining, with fine, distinctly separated punctures, cheeks below very finely striate; scutum somewhat shining, punctures deep and distinct, slightly separated medially, becoming quite close laterally, scutellum shining between deep and distinct, but fine and rather close punctures on each side of a rather deep, median impression; pleura finely rugose; dorsal area of propodeum coarsely striate, posterior face coarsely reticulate, with distinct and complete lateral carinae; wings subhyaline, veins and stigma pale ferruginous; tegulae pale ferruginous posteriorly, more yellowish-hyaline over anterior half; legs dark basally, tibiae yellow basally and apically, with a median reddened blotch, tarsi entirely yellow; abdominal terga shining, with very fine but rather deep and distinct punctures, well separated on the basal segment medially but becoming very minute and sparse apically, those on succeeding segments becoming closer and more minute, apical margins of terga rather broadly reddened, the basal, white fasciae rather indefinite; apical margin of sternum 5 very slightly incurved, 6 rather broadly rounded; gonostylus short and inconspicuous, thinly clothed with short pubescence, the ventral, retrorse lobe rather slender and elongate, attenuated apically, thinly short pubescent.
Extracted from Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), II: Revision of Sphecogastra Ashmead, Floral Specialists of Onagraceae by McGinley, J. R. (2003).
Halictus (Evylaeus) oenotherae Stevens, 1920:37 [female; compared with H. aberrans, H. pectoralis].
Halictus ralenci Crawford, 1932:70 [female].—Mitchell, 1960:365 [synony¬my].
Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) ralenci.—Michener, 1951:1110 [catalog].
Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) oenotherae.—Michener, 1951:1111 [catalog].
Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) oenotherae.—Linsley and MacSwain, 1962:45 [taxonomy].
Evylaeus oenotherae.—Knerer and Atwood, 1964:958 [taxonomy; noted misi-dentification of male of this species as E. truncatus by Mitchell (I960)].— Knerer, 1969:142 [nesting biology].—Knerer and MacKay, 1969 [biolo¬gy].— Hurd, 1979:1960 [catalog].—Moure and Hurd, 1987:78 [catalog].
Lasioglossum oenotherae.—Poole, 1996:617 [checklist].
TYPE MATERIAL.—The female holotype of Halictus oeno¬therae is in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. The specimen is labeled "Blue Rapids, Ks.[Kansas] 8/30 P.M. Jun[e] 20 1919 O.A. Stevens/Megapterium missouriense [handwritten]/12033 [Stevens' type number]/Type No. 23848 U.S.N.M. [red label]/ Halictus oenotherae Stevens 9 type" [handwritten]. The type is in excellent condition except for missing the last tarsomere of the left front leg and the last three tarsomeres of the right front leg. The female holotype of Halictus ralenci is deposited in the American Museum of Natural History. It is labeled "Raleigh NC [North Carolina] C S Brimley 29-V[May]-24/Acc. 33827/Halictus ralenci Type Cwfd" [handwritten]. The speci¬men is missing the last tarsomere of the right middle leg and the entire tarsus of the right hind leg.
FIGURE 117.—Distribution of Sphecodogastra oenotherae.
DISTRIBUTION (Figure 117).—Sphecodogastra oenotherae is the one member of this genus occurring in far eastern North America. Only S. texana is also known to occur east of the Mississippi River, being recorded in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Michigan—states in which S. oenotherae apparently does not occur. I have seen specimens of S. oenotherae from New Brunswick and Ontario, the northern parts of its range. Moure and Hurd (1987) also listed it from Nova Scotia. Its range extends south to Georgia. Interestingly, there are four disjunct locality records of this species west of the Mississippi: Marshall County, Kansas (the type locality); Calcasieu County, Louisiana; and Lee and Upshur counties, Texas. Moure and Hurd (1987) also listed it from North Dakota. Whether this disjunct pattern is real or was a result of inadequate collecting
is unknown. The western records make S. oenotherae poten¬tially sympatric, albeit narrowly, with S. texana and S. lusoria and also with S. aberrans if the North Dakota record is cor¬rect.
Knerer and MacKay (1969:289) correctly noted that the wide distribution of this species in eastern North America "is seldom reflected in representative local collections." In this current review of Sphecodogastra based on approximately 3200 speci¬mens, I have examined only 170 S. oenotherae. An effort to collect specimens from Oenothera in the early morning hours and twilight period would undoubtedly extend our knowledge of the distribution of this species. Oenothera laciniata, an evening primrose from which S. oenotherae has been collected, has an eastern distribution (Dietrich and Wagner, 1988) similar to that of S. oenotherae and should be considered a primary tar¬get for potential sampling.
DIAGNOSIS.—The coarsely rugo-striate dorsal propodeal surface (Figure 122) easily differentiates both males and fe¬males of Sphecodogastra oenotherae from all other known Sphecodogastra.
DESCRIPTION.—FEMALE: (1) Length 6.6-8.2 mm (mean = 7.6, n = 5); (2) wing length 1.9-2.3 mm (mean = 2.1, n = 5); (3) abdominal width 2.1-2.5 mm (mean = 2.4, n = 5).
Structure: (4) Head broad (Figure 118); length/width ratio 0.89-0.94 (mean = 0.92, n = 5). (5) Gena, at midpoint, slightly exceeding compound eye in width. (9) Clypeus projecting ap¬proximately 0.67 times its length below lower margin of eyes; (11) clypeal surface without median longitudinal sulcation. (13) Ocular-ocellar distance subequal to distance between lat¬eral ocellus and hind margin of vertex (ocular-ocellar space approximately 2.0 times lateral ocellar diameter); (14) distance between lateral ocelli slightly exceeding ocular-ocellar dis¬tance. (16) Inner margins of compound eyes nearly parallel. (21) Scape reaching top of vertex; (22) pedicel subequal in length to flagellomere 1. (30) Mandible elongate, but because of broad head only reaching opposing clypeal angle; subapical tooth somewhat reduced.
(40) Dorsal surface of propodeum about 0.71 times the length of scutellum and approximately 1.25 times the length of metanotum; (44) lateral propodeal carinae very well developed, encircling propodeal surface. (45) Inner hind tibial spur with 4 or 5 moderately elongate teeth (Figure 62).
(46) Lateral edge of metasomal T2 broadly rounded.
Sculpture: (51) Supraclypeal area polished, (52) punctation sparse, most punctures separated by two times their diameters. (53) Clypeus polished; (54) punctation sparse, punctures small, only slightly larger apically, separated by 2-3 times their diam¬eters. (55) Hypostoma obscurely striolate throughout.
(56) Mesoscutum mostly shiny, tessellation confined to ante-rior one-fourth, (57) punctation as in Figure 123, most punc¬tures separated by 1-2 times their diameters. (63) Dorsal surface of propodeum strongly and entirely striate (Figure 122), (64) surface smooth, not alveolated. (65) Tl shiny and
polished, (66) punctation fine, moderately sparse, punctures separated by 1—3 times their diameters.
Coloration: (67) Abdomen dark brown. (69) Flagellum brown. (70) Tegula light brown. (71) Wing membrane pale yel-lowish brown; veins and stigma light brown. (72) Legs dark brown.
Vestiture: (74) Hairs on head white. (75) Pubescence on tho¬rax white; (76) mesoscutal hairs moderately elongate, approxi¬mately 1.5 times median ocellar diameter; mesoscutum and pleu¬ron without short suberect or adpressed hairs. (81) Basal hair bands on T2-T4 weakly developed, inconspicuous; terga lacking apical hair bands.
MALE: As described for female except as follows: (1) Length 7.3-8.1 mm (mean = 7.7, n = 5); (2) wing length 1.9-2.0 mm (mean = 2.0, n = 5); (3) abdominal width 1.7-1.9 mm (mean = 1.8, n = 5). (4) Head (Figure 119) length/width ratio 1.05-1.09 (mean = 1.07, n = 5). (23) Flagellomere 2 approxi¬mately 1.5 times length of flagellomere 1. (37) Median meso¬scutal line impressed. (70) Tegula yellowish brown. (73) Short, adpressed hairs on face extending dorsad just below median ocellus. (76) Mesoscutal hairs moderately elongate; short, ad¬pressed hairs inconspicuous to absent; pleuron without short, suberect to adpressed hairs.
Terminalia (Figures 124-127): (84) S7 lateral arms slen¬der; (85) S8 usually developed; apex of median process rounded; (89) retrorse membranous lobe narrow, parallel sided.
FLIGHT RECORDS (Figure 128).—Females of Sphecodogas-tra oenotherae, like S. antiochensis, were most often collected in late spring (unlike the other Sphecodogastra species exam¬ined in this study), with 64% of specimens taken during May. Males were more often collected in later months, with 87% from July and August.
At Toronto, Canada, Knerer and MacKay (1969) reported ac¬tivity of this species to be much delayed, apparently to coincide with the Oenothera bloom in that area. Females first appeared in mid-June and some nests were not established before July. Males were not observed at flowers until the end of July. Nest activity continued until late August, but all nests remained closed after September. The authors thought S. oenotherae to be univoltine at this latitude.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.—170 (104 females, 66 males).
CANADA, NEW BRUNSWICK: Nerepis. ONTARIO: Ottawa; Toronto.
UNITED STATES. CONNECTICUT: Fairfield Co.: Stamford. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Washington, D.C. GEORGIA: Dade Co.: Head River; DeKalb Co.: Stone Mountain; Rabun Co.: Rabun Bald; White Co.: Yonah Mountain. KANSAS: Marshall Co.: Blue Rapids. LOUISIANA: Calcasieu Co.: Vinton. MARYLAND: Prince Georges Co.: Greenbelt. MASSACHU¬SETTS: Worcester Co.: Petersham. NEW HAMPSHIRE: Straf¬ford Co.: Durham. NEW JERSEY: Bergen Co.: Alpine; Closter; Ramsey; Essex Co.: Great Piece Meadows; Morris Co.: Boonton. NEW YORK: Albany Co.: Rensselaerville (Huyck Preserve); Nassau Co.: Floral Park; Rockland Co.: Nyack; Suffolk Co.: Orient Point (Cold Spring Harbor), Set-auket, Sound Beach; Sullivan Co.: White Lake; Tompkins Co.: Ithaca (B. Danforth, pers. comm., 1996). NORTH CAROLINA: Harnett Co.: Lillington, 10 mi S; Haywood Co.; Macon Co.: Highlands; Wayah Bald; Wayah Gap; Transylvania Co.: Rich Mountain; Wake Co.: Raleigh; Watanga Co.: Grandfather Mountain; Yancey Co.: Mt. Mitchell. PENNSYLVANIA: Cumberland Co.: Craigheads. TEXAS: Lee Co.: Lexington; Upshur Co.: Lake McClellan. VIRGINIA: Arlington Co.: Falls Church; Glencarlyn.
TYPE MATERIAL.—The female holotype is in excellent con¬dition and is deposited in the National Museum of Natural His¬tory, Smithsonian Institution. It is labeled "Durango Dgo. [Durango], MEX.[ico] VIII [August]-13-1962/Domestic squash/A.E. & MM. Michelbacher Collectors/200.2 [green labcl]/0635-0735[flight activityJ/HOLOTYPE Sphecodogastra potosi RJ. McGinley" [red label]. Thirty-one paratypes are designated and listed in the "Specimens Examined" section that follows.
ETYMOLOGY.—The specific name is a reference to the Mexi¬can state of San Luis Potosi where the largest series of this spe¬cies has been collected. This was a label manuscript name used by George E. Bohart who apparently was the first to recognize that these specimens represented a new species.
DISTRIBUTION (Figure 83).—Sphecodogastra potosi is known only from Hidalgo County, New Mexico, USA, and the Mexican slates of Durango, San Luis Potosi, and Zacatecas. It is currently known to be sympatric only with S. tusoria, both having been collected at Fresnillo (Zacatecas state) and adja-cent areas in New Mexico.
DIAGNOSIS.—The presence of short, adpressed hairs on the pleuron (e.g., Figure 21) combined with the broad head and elongate mandibles (Figure 18) will distinguish the females of S. potosi from other Sphecodogastra species having dark abdo-mens. For further details, see "Diagnosis" for S. lusoria.
Males of S. potosi can be identified by their darkly pig-mented mandibles; mandibles of other congeneric males have
conspicuous areas of yellow pigmentation. Other helpful char-acteristics for recognizing the males of this species are the lack of antennal scnsillar patterns (found in the very common S. lusoria as well as S. antiochensis. Figures 42, 76) and the rela-tively broad head (Figure 130).
DESCRIPTION.—FEMALE: (1) Length 7.2-8.5 mm (mean = 8.0, n = 5); (2) wing length 2.3-2.5 mm (mean = 2.4, n = 5); (3) abdominal width 2.2-2.6 mm (mean = 2.4, n = 5).
Structure: (4) Head broad (Figure 129); length/width ra¬tio 0.90-0.92 (mean = 0.91, « = 5). (5) Gena, at midpoint, ex¬ceeding width of compound eye. (9) Clypeus projecting ap¬proximately 0.63 times its length below lower margin of eyes; (11) clypeal surface without median longitudinal sulcation. (13) Ocular-ocellar distance subequal to distance between lat¬eral ocellus and hind margin of vertex (ocular-ocellar space approximately 2.0 times lateral ocellar diameter); (14) distance between lateral ocelli slightly exceeding ocular-ocellar dis¬tance. (16) Inner margins of compound eyes nearly parallel. (21) Scape reaching top of vertex; (22) pedicel subequal in length to flagcllomere 1. (30) Mandible elongate, reaching slightly beyond opposing clypeal angle (Figure 18).
(40) Dorsal surface of propodeum about 0.78 times the length of scutcllum and approximately 1.38 times the length of metanotum; (44) lateral propodeal carinae well developed, ex-tending to dorsal propodeal surface. (45) Inner hind tibial spur with 4 or 5 moderately elongate teeth (Figure 63).
(46) Lateral edge of metasomal T2 broadly rounded.
Sculpture: (51) Supraclypeal area polished, (52) punctation only moderately dense, most punctures separated by 1-2 times their diameters. (53) Clypeus polished; (54) apical punctures
slightly larger than basal ones, separated by 2-A times their di-ameters. (55) Hypostoma weakly striolate throughout.
(56) Mesoscutum mostly shiny and polished, tessellation confined to the anterior half, (57) punctation as in Figure 134, most punctures separated by 2-3 times their diameters (some-what more sparse than other species). (63) Dorsal surface of propodeum entirely rugulose (Figure 133), (64) surface alvco-lated. (65) Tl shiny and polished, (66) punctation extremely fine, moderately sparse, punctures separated by 1-3 times their diameters.
Coloration: (67) Abdomen dark brown. (69) Flagellum dark brown. (70) Tegula brown. (71) Wing membrane hyaline; veins and stigma light brown. (72) Legs brown,
Vestiiure: (74) Hairs on head white. (75) Pubescence on thorax white; (76) mesoscutal hairs moderately short, length subequal to diameter of median ocellus; mesoscutum and espe-cially pteuron, with short, adpressed hairs. (81) Basal hair bands on T2-T4 presenl, covering basal one-fourth of tergal surface; moderately developed apical hair bands present on T3 and T4.
MALE: As described for female except as follows: (1) length 6.6-7.8 mm (mean = 7.2, n = 5); (2) wing length 1.8-2.1 mm (mean = 2.0, n = 5); (3) abdominal width 1.5-1.8 mm (mean = 1.7, n = 5). (4) Head (Figure 130) length/width ratio 1.04-1.08 (mean = 1.05, n = 5). (23) Flagellomere 2 approxi¬mately 1.5 times length of flagellomere 1. (37) Median meso-scutal line only faintly impressed. (70) Tegula yellowish brown. (73) Short, adpressed hairs on face extending dorsad just below median ocellus. (76) Mesoscutum with both moder¬ately elongate and short, adpressed hairs; pleuron with some short, suberect to adpressed hairs.
Terminalia (Figures 135-138): (84) S7 lateral arms slen¬der; (85) S8 short, somewhat reduced; apex of median process rounded; (89) retrorse membranous lobe narrow, parallel sided.
FLIGHT RECORDS.—Only six collections of S. potosi were examined. Females were collected from May through August; males were collected in June and August. Most specimens of both sexes (83%) were collected in June.
SPECIMENS EXAMINED.—32 (18 females, 14 males).
MEXICO, DURANGO: Durango, 13 Aug 1962, Cucurbita, A.E. and M.M. Michelbacher (1 9, NMNH; holotype). SAN LUIS POTOSf: San Luis Potosi, 16 mi E, 18-19 Jun 1966,
Gaura coccinea, D.E. Breedlove (129, lid, CU). ZACATE-CAS: Fresnillo, 9 mi S, 24 Jun 1956, J.W. MacSwain, D.D. Linsdale (2d, UCB); Fresnillo, 17 mi N, 16 Jul 1954, J.W. MacSwain, E.I. Schlinger (39, UCB).
UNITED STATES, NEW MEXICO: Hidalgo Co.: Rodeo, 1 mi W, 3 Aug 1961, J.G Rozen (1 d, AMNH); Rodeo, 3 mi SW, 5 May 1965, J.G Rozen (2 9, AMNH).