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Lasioglossum texanum (Cresson, 1872)
Sphecodes texana Cresson, 1872; Halictus (Parasphecodes) texanus (Cresson, 1872); Sphecodogastra texana (Cresson, 1872)

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Halictidae   Lasioglossum
Subgenus: Sphecodogastra


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Overview
Extracted from Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), II: Revision of Sphecogastra Ashmead, Floral Specialists of Onagraceae by McGinley, J. R. (2003).

Sphecodes texana Cresson, 1872:249 [female, male, four specimens].— 1916:109 [lectotype]. Halictus (Parasphecodes) texanus.—Cockerell, 1898b:45 [key]. Hal ictus texanus.—Cockerell, 1898a: 185 [taxonomy; floral association with pear, Senecio].—Pearson, 1933:386, 392 [recorded from Chicago, Illinois area].—Graenicher, 1935:302 [localities; association with Oenothera rhom-bipetala].—Stevens, 1951:61 [floral associations with Oenothera nuttallii, O. strigosa]. Sphecodogastra texana.—Ashmead, 1899:93 [new genus].—Graenicher, 1911:222, 223, 233 [locality records; association with Oenothera rhombipe-tala).—Mitchell, 1960:365 [redescription, locality, and floral records].— Kerfoot, 1967a [nesting biology; behavior].—1967c [lunar periodicity].— Hurd, 1979:1962 [catalog].—Moure and Hurd, 1987:85 [catalog]. Hal ictus (Megalopta?) texanus.—Stevens, 1920:35 [taxonomy; floral associa¬tions; localities; flight activity]. Sphecodogastre texana.—Hicks, 1936:51 [lapsus calami; nest architecture]. Lasioglossum {Sphecodogastra) texanum.—Linsley and MacSwain, 1962:47 [key separating females of L. texanum and L. noctivaga].—Linsley et al., 1963:43 [locality records; floral associations with Oenothera caespitosa, O. runcinata].—Gregory, 1964:400, 417 [floral records].—Kerfoot, 1967b [ocellar size and nocturnal behavior]. Lasioglossum texanus.—Poole, 1996 [checklist]. TYPE MATERIAL.—The female lectotype of Sphecodes texana is deposited in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel¬phia. The specimen is structurally in good condition, but the hairs are soiled and matted. It is labeled "Tex. [Texas]/Lecto-TYPE 2134 [red label]/Sphecodes Cress., 2 specimens [hand¬written and folded]/ANSP" [yellow label]. DISTRIBUTION (Figure 139).—See "Distribution" for S. noctivaga. DIAGNOSIS.—See "Diagnosis" for S. noctivaga. DESCRIPTION.—FEMALE: (1) Length 8.0-11.2 mm (mean = 9.5, n = 5); (2) wing length 2.7-3.1 mm (mean = 2.9, n = 5); (3) abdominal width 2.5-3.3 mm (mean = 3.0, n = 5). FIGURE 139.—Distribution of Sphecodogastra texana. Structure: (4) Head broad (Figure 140); length/width ratio 0.90-0.96 (mean = 0.93, n = 5). (5) Gena, at midpoint, greatly exceeded by width of compound eye. (9) Clypeus projecting approximately 0.60 times its length below lower margin of eyes; (11) clypeal surface without median longitudinal sulca-tion. (13) Ocular-ocellar distance less than distance between lateral ocellus and hind margin of vertex (ocelli very large, ocular-ocellar space approximately 0.5 times lateral ocellar di¬ameter); (14) distance between lateral ocelli approximately 4.0 times ocular-ocellar distance. (16) Inner margins of compound eyes converging below. (21) Scape reaching beyond top of vertex; (22) pedicel slightly shorter than flagellomere 1. (30) Mandible moderate in length, reaching opposing clypeal angle (Figure 14). (40) Dorsal surface of propodeum about 0.66 times the length of scutellum and approximately 1.46 times the length of metanotum; (44) lateral propodeal carinae absent or at most ex¬tending one-fourth the distance to dorsal propodeal surface. (45) Inner hind tibial spur with 3 or 4 moderately short teeth (Figure 65), similar to that of S. noctivaga (Figure 64). (46) Lateral edge of metasomal T2 broadly rounded. Sculpture: (51) Supraclypeal area tessellate only along ex¬treme lateral margins, (52) punctation somewhat sparse, most punctures separated by 1-2 times their diameters. (53) Clypeus mostly polished, tessellate along basal and lateral margins; (54) apical punctures only slightly larger than basal ones, very sparse, separated by 2-5 times their diameters. (55) Hypostoma striolate, weakly so on anterior half. (56) Mesoscutum somewhat dull, surface tessellate through-out, (57) punctation as in Figure 145, punctures separated by 1-2 times their diameters. (63) Dorsal surface of propodeum rugulose over basal two-thirds (Figure 144), (64) surface alveo-lated. (65) Tl shiny and polished, (66) punctation extremely fine, sparse, most punctures separated by twice their diameters. Coloration: (67) Abdomen mostly orange (T4 and T5 usu¬ally dark orange-brown; T3 often darkly pigmented, and rarely, entire abdomen darkly pigmented). (69) Flagellum orange-brown. (70) Tegula light brown. (71) Wing membrane hyaline; veins and stigma amber to light brown. (72) Legs orange-brown. Vestiture: (74) Hairs on head white. (75) Pubescence on thorax white; (76) mesoscutal hairs short, many suberect or ad-pressed; pleuron with conspicuous amount of adpressed hairs. (81) Basal hair bands on T2-T4 virtually absent, inconspicu¬ous; moderately developed apical hair band present on T4. MALE: AS described for female except as follows: (1) length 7.1-9.2 mm (mean = 8.3, n = 5); (2) wing length 2.0-2.6 mm (mean = 2.3, n - 5); (3) abdominal width 1.8-2.4 mm (mean = 2.1, n = 5). (4) Head (Figure 141) length/width ratio 1.00-1.03 (mean = 1.02, n = 5). (23) Flagellomere 2 approxi¬mately 1.5 times length of flagellomere 1. (37) Median meso¬scutal line not impressed. (70) Tegula yellow-translucent. (73) Short, adpressed hairs on face extending dorsad to ocellar area, weakly enclosing median ocellus. (76) Mesoscutum with con¬spicuous short, adpressed hairs and more elongate, less con¬spicuous hairs; pleuron with short, suberect to adpressed hairs. Terminalia (Figures 146-150): (84) S7 lateral arms moder-ately well developed; (85) S8 moderately developed; apex of median process truncate; (89) unlike other Sphecodogastra, retrorse membranous lobe very broad and twisted ventrally. FLIGHT RECORDS (Figure 151).—Females of S. texana were collected from April to December, but like most species of Sphecodogastra, they were collected primarily from May through July (88%). Males were collected from June through October. Graenicher (1911) reported this species to be active from May to September in northwestern Wisconsin, and Kerfoot (1967a) observed nesting activity during this same
period in Kingman County, Kansas. No information is avail¬able concerning the number of generations produced each year. SPECIMENS EXAMINED.—903 (847 females, 56 males). MEXICO, CHIHUAHUA: Juarez. COAHUILA: Cabos; Parras, 7 mi N. MICHOACAN: Morelia, 13 mi W. VERACRUZ: El Naranjo, 10 mi W, UNITED STATES. ARIZONA: Yavapai Co.: Camp Verde; Cornville, 3 mi S. COLORADO: Boulder Co.: Boulder; White Rocks; Clark Co.: Lake George; Denver Co.: Denver; El Paso Co.: Colorado Springs; Foster Ranch; Kiowa Co.: Eads; Larimer Co.: Fort Collins; Morgan Co.: Fort Morgan; county I Co.: Mitchell; Sheridan Co.: Hay Springs; Sioux Co.: Agate; coordinates unknown: Fuente; Walsenberg, 2 mi W. ILLINOIS: Thomas Co.: Halsey; Halsey, 2.5 mi W (National Forest). Henderson Co.: Gladstone, 1.5 mi SW; Mason Co.: Forest NEW MEXICO: Catron Co.: Glenwood, 5 mi N; Chaves Co.; City, 4 mi SW; Morgan Co.: Meredosia; Peoria Co.: Peoria. Dona Ana Co.: Las Cruces; Eddy Co.: Artesia; Malaga, 7 mi IOWA: Johnson Co.: Iowa City. KANSAS: Butler Co.; Clark W; Grant Co.: Bayard; Silver City; Lincoln Co.: Hondo; Union Co.: Kingstown, 1 mi W (State Park); Cowley Co.: Winfield; Co.: Clayton Lake (12 mi NW Clayton). NORTH DAKOTA: Douglas Co.: Lawrence; University of Kansas Natural History Cass Co.: Leonard; Dickey Co.: Oakes; Ransom Co.: Sheldon; Reservation; Finney Co.: Garden City; Kingman Co.: King- Richland Co.: Walcott Dunes. OKLAHOMA: Alfalfa Cow¬ man; Kingman, 8 mi W; Marshall Co.: Blue Rapids; Pottawat- Cherokee; Great Salt Plains; Beaver Co.: Gate; Beckham Co.: omie Co.: Little Gobi Desert; Pratt Co.: Pratt; Reno Co.: Sayre; Caddo Co.: Hinton; Canadian Co.: El Reno; Choctaw Hutchinson; Medora (sand dunes); Riley Co.: Manhattan; Co.: Grant; Hugo; Cimarron Co.: Kenton, 7 mi E (North Sedgwick Co.: Wichita; Seward Co.; Summer Co.: Wellington. Crease Creek); Jackson Co.: Elmer; Jefferson Co.: Waurika; MICHIGAN: Clinton Co.: Bath; Ingham Co.: Dansville; Kalam- Kiowa Co.: Lugert; Love Co.: Oswalt. Marietta Co.: Thacker- azoo Co.: Gull Lake Biological Station; Kent Co.: Grand ville, 1 mi S; Marshall Co.: University of Oklahoma Biological Rapids; Livingston Co.: E. S. George Reserve. MISSOURI: Station; Okfuskee Co.: Okemah; Oklahoma Co.: 11 mi N Okla- Buchanan Co.: Mo-Kan Bridge. NEBRASKA: Antelope Co.: homa City; Okmulgee Co.: Okmulgee; Pawnee Co.: Pawnee; Grove Lake; Cherry Co.: Valentine, 25 mi S (F. Crowe Ranch); Payne Co.: Stillwater; Pontotoc Co.: Roff; Roger Mills Co.: Cuming Co.: West Point; Dawes Co.: Chadron; Hooker Co.: Cheyenne; Texas Co.: Guymon; Tillman Co.: Grandfield; Tulsa Mullen; Mullen, 1.5 mi N; Lancaster Co.: Lincoln; Scotts Bluff Co.: Tulsa; Woods Co.: Little Sahara State Park; Waynoka, 3
mi W; Woodward Co.: Mooreland; Woodward. SOUTH DAKOTA: Brookings Co.: Brookings; Brown Co.: Hecla; Buf-falo Co.: Ft. Thompson; Fall River Co.: Angostura Dam; Hyde Co.: Highmore. TEXAS: Bastrop Co.: Bastrop; Brazos Co.: Bryan; Brewster Co.: Alpine; Cameron Co.: Brownsville; Clay Co.: Henrietta; Coryell Co.: Eddy, 12 mi W; Ft. Hood; East¬land Co.: Romney; El Paso Co.: El Paso; Gonzales Co.: Luling; Palmetto State Park; Hale Co.: Hale Center; Memphis, 5 mi W; Harris Co.: Houston; Harrison Co.: Karnack; Hemp¬hill Co.: Canadian; Hildago Co.: Alamo, 7 mi SE (Santa Ana Wildlife Refuge); Howard Co.: Big Spring, 1 mi NW; Jeff
Davis Co.: Phantom Lake (Davis Mountains); Kenedy Co.: Padre Island National Seashore; Kerr Co.: Kerrvillc; Kleberg Co.: Kingsville; Lamar Co.: Paris; Mitchell Co.: Colorado City; Nacogdoches Co.: Nacogdoches; Randall Co.: Buffalo Lake State Park; Palo Duro Canyon; San Patricio Co.: Port Aransas; Taylor Co.: Abilene; Buffalo Gap; Vol Verde Co.: Del Rio: Ward Co.: Monahans, 9.5 mi S; Wichita Co.: Burkbumett (Red River); Burkbumett, 4 mi E. WISCONSIN: Pierce Co.: Prcscott; Wood Co: Port Edwards. WYOMING: Converse Co.: Douglas; Niobrara Co.: Lusk; Platte Co.: Ft. Laramie, 11.5 mi SW; Wheatland; Weston Co.: Newcastle, 6 mi NW.

Identification
This large species, 10-11mm, is easily identifiable by its monstrous ocelli, these so large that the gap between the eye and the lateral ocelli is less than half of one ocelli. The compound eye also much larger than other Lasioglossums in the East,

Names
Scientific source:

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Updated: 2019-02-21 18:14:02 gmt
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