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Lethrinus miniatus (Forster, 1801)
Island Snapper; Lipper; Nannygai; Red-throat; Red-throated Emperor; Sweet-lip; Sweetlip; Sweetlip Emperor; Tricky Snapper; Trumpet Emperor; Trumpeter; Yellow-mouthed Perch; Yellow-mouthed Snapper; Lethrinus chrysostomus Richardson, 1848; Lethrinus imperialis De Vis, 1884; Sparus miniatus Forster, 1801

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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d52a8e27-7911-4484-b483-29844e865110 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/d52a8e27-7911-4484-b483-29844e865110
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Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » ACTINOPTERYGII (Class) » EUTELEOSTEI (Subdivision) » ACANTHOPTERYGII (Superorder) » PERCIFORMES (Order) » PERCOIDEI (Suborder) » LETHRINIDAE (Family) » Lethrinus Cuvier, 1829 (Genus) » Lethrinus miniatus (Forster, 1801)

Species Lethrinus miniatus (Forster, 1801)


Regional Maps

External Links

CAAB : 37351009 Taxon concept Lethrinus_miniatus;Lethrinus last modified 2013-10-09 10:07:52.756

Species Lethrinus miniatus (Forster, 1801)

Redthroat Emperor , Island Snapper, Lipper, Nannygai, Red-throat, Red-throated Emperor, Sweet-lip, Sweetlip, Sweetlip Emperor, Tricky Snapper, Trumpet Emperor, Trumpeter, Yellow-mouthed Perch, Yellow-mouthed Snapper


Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy


Generic Combinations




New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Houtman Abrolhos (28°30'S) to Monte Bello Islands (21°40'S), Rowley Shoals (17°30'S) and Scott Reef (14°05'S), WA, and Ashmore Reef, Timor Sea, also Torres Strait, QLD (10°03'S) to Sydney, NSW (33°53'S), and Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island; tropical, west Pacific.

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Lord Howe Province (14), Timor Province (2), Norfolk Island Province (21), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Coral reef, inshore, marine.

Extra Ecological Information

5-30 m.


General References

AFMA 2010. Norfolk Island Inshore Fishery Data Summary 2006-2009. Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra. 20 pp. [15]

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [132]

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers . Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls. [84]

Carpenter, K.E. 2001. Sparidae, Lethrinidae. pp. 2990-3050 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 5 2791-3379 pp. [3036]

Carpenter, K.E. & Allen, G.R. 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae) . An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol. 9. Rome : FAO 118 pp. [73]

Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. & Kailola, P.J. 1984. Trawled Fishes of Southern Indonesia and Northwest Australia . Jakarta : Dir. Gen. Fish. (Indonesia), German Tech. Coop., Aust. Dev. Ass. Bur. 406 pp. [205]

Grant, E.M. 1991. Fishes of Australia . Brisbane : EM Grant Pty Ltd 480 pp. [206] (as L. chrysostomus )

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes . Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp. [411]

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part II. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 : 145–329 [225] (as Lethrinus chrysostomus and as L. imperialis )

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 507 pp. figs. [201]

Randall, J.E., Allen, G.R. & Steene, R. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea . Bathurst : Crawford House Press 557 pp. figs. [201]

Roughley, T.C. 1957. Fish and Fisheries of Australia . Sydney : Angus & Robertson 341 pp. [75] (as L. chrysostomus )

Sainsbury, K.J., Kailola, P.J. & Leyland, G.G. 1984. Continental Shelf Fishes of Northern and North-Western Australia . Canberra : Fisheries Information Service 375 pp. figs & pls. [224] (as Lethrinus chrysostomus )

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [46] (1224 as Lethrinus imperialis and 1225 as L. chrysostomus )


Common Name References

Carpenter, K.E. & Allen, G.R. 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae) . An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. No. 125, Vol. 9. Rome : FAO 118 pp. [73] (FAO) (Red-throated Emperor, Trumpet Emperor)

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [314] (Lipper, Nannygai, Red-throat, Sweetlip, Tricky Snapper)

Grant, E.M. 1991. Fishes of Australia . Brisbane : EM Grant Pty Ltd 480 pp. [208] (Norfolk Is.) (Trumpeter)

Marshall, T.C. 1964. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coastal Waters of Queensland . Sydney : Angus & Robertson 566 pp. 136 pls. [200] (Island Snapper, Sweet-lip, Yellow-mouthed Perch, Yellow-mouthed Snapper)

Roughley, T.C. 1957. Fish and Fisheries of Australia . Sydney : Angus & Robertson 341 pp. [75] (Sweetlip Emperor)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Redthroat Emperor )

Yearsley, G.K., Last, P.R. & Ward, R.D. (eds) 1999. Australian Seafood Handbook . Hobart : CSIRO Marine Research 460 pp. [101] ( Redthroat Emperor )


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
19-Dec-2012 19-Dec-2012 MODIFIED
09-Nov-2011 MODIFIED

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Lethrinus miniatus (Forster , 1801)

Trumpet emperor Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Lethrinus miniatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Lethrinus miniatus (Trumpet emperor) Lethrinus miniatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus .  More on author: Forster .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 2295 ).   Tropical; 27°N - 34°S, 113°E - 168°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: The Ryukyu Islands, eastern Philippines, northern Australia, and New Caledonia (Ref. 114226 ). Occurrence records outside distributional range probably refer to Lethrinus olivaceus (Ref. 2295 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 36.1   range ? - 42.2 cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295 ); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987 ); max. published weight: 9.6 kg (Ref. 9987 ); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 2290 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately deep, its depth 2.4-2.8 times in standard length; head length 0.9-1 times in body depth, 2.5-2.9 times in SL, dorsal profile near eye slightly convex; snout moderately long, its length about 1.7-2.4 times in HL, measured without the lip the snout is 0.9-1 times in cheek height, its dorsal profile slightly concave, snout angle relative to upper jaw between 50° and 65°; interorbital space convex to flat; posterior nostril an oblong longitudinal opening, closer to orbit than anterior nostril; eye situated close to dorsal profile, its length 3.4-5.4 times in HL; cheek moderately high, its height 2.0-2.9 times in HL; lateral teeth in jaws conical; outer surface of maxilla smooth or with a longitudinal ridge; D X,9 with the 3rd dorsal-fin spine usually longest, its length 2.3-2.9 times in body depth; A III,8 with the 1st or 2nd soft ray usually the longest, its length almost equal to or slightly longer than length of base of soft-rayed portion of anal fin and 1.3-1.4 times in length of entire anal-fin base; pectoral-fin rays 13; pelvic-fin membranes between rays closest to body usually with dense melanophores; no scales on cheek; 46-48 lateral-line scales; 4½ scale rows between lateral line and base of middle dorsal-fin spines; 15 to 17 scale rows in transverse series between origin of anal fin and lateral line; usually 15 rows in lower series of scales around caudal peduncle; 2-7 scales in supratemporal patch; inner surface of pectoral fins partially or densely covered with scales; posterior angle of operculum fully scaly. Colour of body silvery, tan, or yellowish, base of scales often black, often a series of 8-9 dark bars (may be absent in some individuals); base of pectoral fins red; sometimes a red streak originating on upper operculum, passing beneath eye and onto snout; 2 red spots often on upper rim of eye; lips reddish; fins pale or reddish, sometimes brilliant red on membranes near base of pelvic fins, and between spinous rays of dorsal and anal fin (Ref 68703).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit coral reefs during daytime where they feed occasionally in sand and rubble areas between coral heads. At night, they move out over the sandy sea floor and forage actively. Usually occur in small schools. Juveniles live in shallow, inshore waters such as seagrass and mangrove areas, moving into deeper water as they age (Ref. 27260 , 28202 ). Feed mainly on crustaceans, echinoderms, mollusks and fish, with crabs and sea urchins predominating. Much of the information reported for this species was based on misidentifications and referred to L. olivaceous (see Ref. 2295). Marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 9987 ). Caught primarily by handline. One of the favourite food and sport fishes around the Great Barrier Reef. A major food fish in New Caledonia. Occasionally implicated in cases of fish poisoning (ciguatoxin) (Ref. 68703 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

L. miniatus are serial hermaphrodites with a protogynous strategy (i.e, female first, male second). Sexual bimodality was present in both age and length frequency distributions (Brown et al 1994). Juveniles live in shallow, inshore waters such as seagrass and mangrove areas, moving into deeper water as they age (Ref. 27260 , 28202 ). Also Ref. 103751.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen , 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 09 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690 )

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Aquaculture: production ; ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 1510 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00919 - 0.02073), b=3.00 (2.88 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.2   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Generation time: 4.2 (2.9 - 6.5) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 12 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.1-0.4; tm=2-3; tmax=22). Prior r = 0.77, 95% CL = 0.51 - 1.15, Based on 2 stock assessments. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

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