Bartram, E. B. 1933. Manual of Hawaiian mosses. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 101. 275 pp.
Mitt., Crosby, M. R. & others - REVISED 1999. REVISED: accepted in a monograph, revision, or descriptive flora since 1963.
Eddy, A. 1988. Sphagnales to Dicranales. Handb. Males. Mosses 1. [v] + 204 pages.
Gao Chien(editor) 1994. Fl. Bryophyt. Sin. 1. Sphagnales, Andreaeales, Archidiales, Dicranales. 368 pp.