Body moderately deep. Snout somewhat pointed, dorsal profile of head rounded; preorbital bone relatively broad; its width usually greater than eye diameter; a deep groove or pit from nostrils to front of eye; preopercular notch and knob moderately developed; vomerine tooth patch crescentic, without a medial posterior extension; tongue with a patch of granular teeth; gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch (including rudiments) 16, total rakers on first gill arch 22 or 23. Dorsal fin with X spines and 13 soft rays; anal fin with III spines and 8 soft rays; posterior profile of dorsal and anal fins rounded; pectoral fins with 16 or 17 rays; caudal fin slightly emarginate. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Colour in back and upper sides dark brown or blackish; lower sides and belly reddish, with darker horizontal stripes (between each scale row); fins mainly dusky except pectoral fins pink with dorsal edge prominently black; young and some adults with 2 silvery-white spots on back, one below middle of dorsal fin and one below base of last soft dorsal rays.
Inhabits coral reefs, including sheltered lagoons and outer reefs. Usually found singly, often adjacent to steep outer reef slopes, but occasionally found in groups. Feeds mainly on fishes, but also takes shrimps, crabs, amphipods, stomatopods, gastropods
Distributed in Indo-West Pacific from East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. More common around oceanic islands than in continental areas. It is found in southern Taiwanese waters.
Utilized fresh and dried-salted. Large fish from oceanic areas in the western Pacific are often ciguatoxic.
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Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marquesas and Line islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Australia. More common around oceanic islands than in continental areas.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 39 - ? cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 76.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 12.5 kg (Ref.
); max. reported age: 55 years (Ref.
: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: moderately deep body, its greatest depth 2.4-2.9 in SL; distinct groove or pit from nostrils to the front of the eye; preopercular notch and knob moderately developed; vomerine tooth patch narrow crescentic, without a medial posterior extension; gill rakers of first gill arch 6-7 + 16 = 22-23 (including rudiments). Colour of body dark reddish-brown with faint dark stripes; young and some adults with two silvery-white spots on back; pectoral fins pink with dorsal edge prominently black; juveniles sometimes have caudal end of body and the tail white. mimicking
Adults inhabit coral reefs, including sheltered lagoons and outer reefs (Ref.
). Usually found singly, often adjacent to steep outer reef slopes, but occasionally found in groups (Ref.
). Feeds mainly on fishes, but also take shrimps, crabs, amphipods, stomatopods, gastropods and urochordates. Large fish from oceanic areas in the western Pacific are often ciguatoxic, e.g., in Tuvalu (Ref.
). Caught mainly with handlines and bottom longlines (Ref.
). Utilized fresh and dried-salted (Ref.
). Juveniles mimic
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.5 - 29, mean 28 (based on 2402 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00823 - 0.01926), b=3.00 (2.88 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.11-0.33; tmax=13).
Prior r = 0.41, 95% CL = 0.23 - 0.71, Based on 1 stock assessment.
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Capuli, Estelita Emily
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