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Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus, 1758)

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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Osphronemidae  
 Genus Macropodus  
  Macropodus opercularis    (Linnaeus, 1758) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Chaetodon chinensis Labrus opercularis Macropodus chinensis Macropodus ctenopsoides Macropodus filamentosus Macropodus venustus Macropodus viridiauratus   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 福建魚類誌(朱等, 1985)
Character: Head large. Snout short. Mouth small, oblique and protractile; posterior end of upper jaw distant from anterior margin of eye, both upper and lower jaw with tiny teeth. Body laterally compressed. Scales moderately large. Dorsal fin rays:XII-XV,6-8; anal fin rays:XII-XX,12-15; vertebrae 27-29. Pelvic and posterior end of dorsal and anal fins elongated as filament in male; caudal fin forked, upper and lower lobs with filamentous extension; pelvic fin origin below pectoral fin origin. A conspicuously dark spot on posterior margin of operculum; 7-11 grayish vertical bands on reddish background; irregular blotches on top of head and predorsal body. 
Habitat: Inhabits any kind of slow running water, including paddy field, backwater of rivers, lakes, ponds and swamps. Can breath atmospheric air. Male builds bubble nests and mates below, the sinking eggs will be placed to nests by mouth. The young will be guarde 
Distribution: East Asia, north to Yangtze basin, south to Taiwan, Hainan Island and north Vietnam. Used to wildly inhabited on lowlands of western Taiwan, however, this species is nearly extinct due to chemical pollution. 
Name Code: 381391
  IUCN Red List:LC       Chen,2012:NT   Chen,2012:NT   
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus , 1758)

Paradisefish Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Macropodus opercularis (Paradisefish) Macropodus opercularis
Picture by Liao, T.-Y.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Osphronemidae (Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Macropodus: Greek, makros = great + Greek, pous, podos = foot (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19.   Tropical; 16°C - 26°C (Ref. 1672 ); 30°N - 20°N, 102°E - 122°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia: China, from Yangtze basin to the south, on Hainan Island, in Taiwan, north Viet Nam; introduced to the tropical and subtropical world (Ref. 42924 ). Very popular with aquarists and has been widely transported around the world.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 43281 ); common length : 5.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 17; Dorsal soft rays (total): 5-10; Anal spines : 7-22; Anal soft rays : 9 - 15; Vertebrae : 27 - 29. Caudal fin forked, both lobes elongate in males (Ref. 559 ), with filamentous extension in each lobe (Ref. 43281 ); lower margin of preorbital sharply serrated (Ref. 559 ); conspicuous dark brown opercular spot with whitish posterior margin (margin red in life); body with 7-11 bold, dark bars on pale yellowish background in preserved specimens (blue bars on reddish background in life); dark stripe crossing eye connecting opercular spot with eye; top of head and predorsal body with dark spots; posterior tip or margin of scales on body not darker than scales (Ref. 42924 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit any kind of lowland habitats from heterogeneous structured margins or backwaters of large rivers to small streams and irrigation channels on farmland (Ref. 42924 ). Can colonize stagnant water bodies with very low oxygen content (air breather). Found in streams, paddy fields and ditches (Ref. 5258 ). Feed on small aquatic animals including small fish. First ornamental fish to be brought to Europe (France 1869, Germany 1876) after the goldfish (Ref. 13371 ). Males will fight each other (Ref. 1672 ). Aquarium keeping: minimum aquarium size 80 cm (Ref. 51539 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

The species is a bubble-nest builder; the male swims to the surface, draws a little air into his mouth and envelops it in a film of saliva thereby forming bubbles; upon building the nest, the male drives the female towards it; female spawns then male follows; male picks up the fertilized eggs in his mouth and pushes one by one into each bubble of the nest; male guards eggs until hatching (Ref. 5258 ). Produces up to 500 eggs (Ref. 1672 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Freyhof, J. and F. Herder , 2002. Review of the paradise fishes of the genus Macropodus in Vietnam, with description of two species from Vietnam and southern China (Perciformes: Osphronemidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 13(2):147-167. (Ref. 42924 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 02 September 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00686 - 0.04609), b=3.01 (2.78 - 3.24), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.8   ±0.55 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm<1; Fec=100-500 times 6-12 spawning events). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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