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Magnolia acuminata L.
CUCUMBER-TREE
Cucumbertree

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Magnoliaceae   Magnolia

Magnolia acuminata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia acuminata

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Magnolia acuminata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia acuminata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia acuminata

Magnolia acuminata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 5
Magnolia acuminata
Magnolia acuminata
© Copyright Bobby Hattaway 2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata

Magnolia acuminata, fruit - as borne on the plant
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, fruit - as borne on the plant
Magnolia acuminata, fruit - immature
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, fruit - immature

Magnolia acuminata, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, leaf - whole upper surface
Magnolia acuminata, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, bark - of a large tree

Magnolia acuminata, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, whole tree or vine - general
Magnolia acuminata, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, twig - orientation of petioles

Magnolia acuminata, twig - winter overall
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, twig - winter overall
Magnolia acuminata, inflorescence - lateral view of flower
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, inflorescence - lateral view of flower

Magnolia acuminata, inflorescence - close-up of flower interior
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, inflorescence - close-up of flower interior
Magnolia acuminata, fruit - immature
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Magnolia acuminata, fruit - immature

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Illinoia ( @ NCSU_ENT (7)

Monelliopsis caryae @ NCSU (3)
Bionectriaceae  Dendrodochium rubellum @ BPI (2)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Phyllosticta cookei @ BPI (4)

Phyllosticta magnoliae @ BPI (1)

Sphaeropsis magnoliae @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Discohainesia oenotherae @ 656176B (1); 656176A (1)

Gloeosporium @ BPI (1)
Dothideaceae  Dothidea concaviuscula @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Microsphaera magnifica @ BPI (3)

Phyllactinia guttata @ BPI (1)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea ambigua @ BPI (1)

Sporotrichum lecanii @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Cryptosporella magnoliae @ BPI (1)
Hyponectriaceae  Physalospora @ BPI (1)
Massariaceae  Massaria magnoliae @ BPI (3)
Melanommataceae  Melanomma pulvis-pyrius @ BPI (3)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercospora magnoliae @ BPI (2)
Nectriaceae  Nectria magnoliae @ BPI (1)

Nectria ochroleuca @ BPI (2)

Nectria @ BPI (2)
Pleomassariaceae  Stegonsporium formosum @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes johnsonianus @ BPI (1)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (1)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum albobadium @ BPI (2)

Stereum hirsutum @ BPI (1)
Turritellidae  Vermicularia carbonacea @ BPI (1)
_  Didymosporium @ BPI (2)

Microxyphium footii @ BPI (1)

Sphaeronaema magnoliae @ BPI (9)

Valsaria magnoliae @ 619271B (1); 619271A (1)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 3 | Magnoliaceae | Magnolia

8. Magnolia acuminata (Linnaeus) Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1082. 1759.

Cucumber-tree

Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus var. (e) acuminata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 536. 1753; Kobus acuminata (Linnaeus) Nieuwland; Magnolia acuminata var. alabamensis Ashe ; M. acuminata var . aurea ( Ashe) Ashe; M. acuminata subsp. cordata (Michaux) E. Murray; M. acuminata var. cordata (Michaux) Seringe; M. acuminata var. ludoviciana Sargent; M. acuminata var. ozarkensis Ashe; M. acuminata var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy; M. cordata Michaux; Tulipastrum acuminatum (Linnaeus) Small; T.acuminatum var. aureum Ashe; T.acuminatum var. flavum Small; T.acuminatum var. ludovicianum (Sargent) Ashe; T.acuminatum var. ozarkense (Ashe) Ashe; T.americanum Spach; T.americanum var. subcordatum Spach; T.cordatum (Michaux) Small

Trees , deciduous, single-trunked, to 30 m. Bark dark gray, furrowed. Pith homogeneous. Twigs and foliar buds silvery-pubescent. Leaves distinctly alternate,not in terminal whorl-like clusters; stipules 3.2-4.3 × 1.4-1.6 cm, abaxially pilose. Leaf blade broadly ovate-elliptic, oblong to oblong-obovate, rarely somewhat rotund, (5-)10-25(-40) × 4-15(-26) cm, base cuneate to truncate or broadly rounded, often somewhat oblique, apex acuminate; surfaces abaxially pale green to whitish, pilose to nearly glabrous, adaxially green, glabrous or rarely scattered pilose. Flowers slightly aromatic, 6-9 cm across; spathaceous bracts 2, abaxially silky-pubescent; tepals erect, strongly glaucous to greenish or sometimes yellow to orange-yellow, outermost tepals reflexed, much shorter, green; stamens (50-)60-122(-139), 5-13 mm; filaments white; pistils (35-)40-45(-60). Follicetums oblong-cylindric, often asymmetric, 2-7 × 0.8-2.7 cm; follicles short-beaked, glabrous. Seeds heart-shaped, somewhat flattened to somewhat globose, 9-10 mm, smooth, aril reddish orange. 2 n =76.

Flowering spring. Rich woods, slopes, and ravines, often along streams; 0—1400 m; Ont.; Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

The vernacular name, cucumber-tree, alludes to the resemblance of the follicetum to the young fruit of cucumber. It is the only magnolia species in the flora that occurs naturally in Canada.

Studies of Magnolia acuminata have failed to reconcile the nature of variation in this widespread species. In an attempt to settle differences in variation patterns, J.W. Hardin (1954) recognized four infraspecific taxa in M. acuminata . Later (1972, 1989) Hardin abandoned his earlier views for a more conservative stance, stating that variation in M. acuminata lacked any consistent pattern or geographic correlation. This is the view taken here--no infraspecific taxa are accepted for M. acuminata at this time. Its flowers are normally greenish and glaucous or sometimes yellow to orange-yellow, less showy than those of other magnolias in the flora. In southern areas, trees with yellow to orange-yellow flowers (originally described by Michaux as M. cordata ) occur in North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and perhaps elsewhere, together with trees that bear normal greenish flowers. Both filiform and flagelliform trichomes occur on the leaves; cylindric trichomes also occur.

Magnolia acuminata is of value to horticulturists because no other species of the genus has yellow tepals . Magnolia acuminata contains major quantities of xanthophyll lutein-5,6-epoxide and, in smaller amounts, acarotene-5,6-epoxide. Although this carotenoid occurs randomly throughout populations of M. acuminata , often it is masked by chlorophyll and not visibly expressed. Sometimes the carotenoid pigment shows through, as in the hybrid M. acuminata × M. denudata 'Elizabeth'. In that cross the M. acuminata parent tree was a nondescript plant with greenish flowers; yet out of this hybrid came 'Elizabeth', a stunning plant with light canary yellow flowers, a result completely unexpected. A thorough field study of M. acuminata is clearly warranted, and further investigation of the carotenoid flower pigments is needed to clarify the taxonomy of this widespread tree.

The largest known tree of Magnolia acuminata , 29.6m in height with a trunk diameter of 1.26m, is recorded from a specimen cultivated in Waukon, Iowa (American Forestry Association 1994).

The Cherokee and Iroquois tribes used Magnolia acuminata , largely the bark, as an analgesic, antidiarrheal, gastrointestinal aid, anthelmintic, toothache remedy, and for various other uses (D.E. Moerman 1986).

Updated: 2024-07-21 22:09:54 gmt
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