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Megachile pugnata Say, 1837
Megachile scrobiculata Smith, 1853; Megachile bucephala Smith, 1853; Megachile disparilis Cresson, 1872; Megachile lucrosa Cresson, 1872; Gnathocera cephalica Provancher, 1882; Ceratias_homonym pugnata (Say, 1837); Megachile temporalis_homonym Friese, 1903, female not male; Sayapis pugnata (Say, 1837); Megachile pugnata pomonae Cockerell, 1916; Megachile (Sayapis) pugnata pomonae Cockerell, 1916, valid subspecies

Life   Insecta   Hymenoptera   Apoidea   Megachilidae   Megachile
Subgenus: Sayapis

Megachile pugnata, Mid-Atlantic Phenology
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Megachile pugnata, Mid-Atlantic Phenology

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Megachile pugnata, female, face
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Megachile pugnata, female, face
Megachile pugnata, female, side
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Megachile pugnata, female, side

Megachile pugnata, female, top
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Megachile pugnata, female, top
Megachile pugnata, female, wing
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Megachile pugnata, female, wing

Megachile pugnata FEM comp
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Megachile pugnata FEM comp
Megachile pugnata MALE comp
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Megachile pugnata MALE comp

Megachile pugnata, f on Asclepi --
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Megachile pugnata, f on Asclepi --
Megachile pugnata, f on Asclepi --
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Megachile pugnata, f on Asclepi --

Megachile pugnata, f on Asclepi --
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Megachile pugnata, f on Asclepi --
Megachile pugnata, m on Alium --
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Megachile pugnata, m on Alium --

Megachile pugnata, m on Asclepia -- KA
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Megachile pugnata, m on Asclepia -- KA
Megachile pugnata, m w Pollinia -- KA
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Megachile pugnata, m w Pollinia -- KA

Megachile pugnata, f, face, National Arboretum, DC
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Megachile pugnata, f, face, National Arboretum, DC
Megachile pugnata, f, side, National Arboretum, DC
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Megachile pugnata, f, side, National Arboretum, DC
Overview
Reprinted with permission from: Mitchell, T.B. 1962 Bees of the Eastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin No. 152.


FEMALE�Length 12-18 mm.; abdomen elongate and parallel-sided; entirely black, including tegulae and legs; eyes slightly divergent below; clypeus extremely short and very much thickened apically, the outer face little any longer medially than the thickened edge, margin with a rather broad, median, truncate protuberance and a pair of more lateral tuberdes; mandibles very much broadened apically, obscurely 5-dentate, 4th tooth very low, a small bevelled edge between 2nd and 3rd (fig. 56); lateral ocelli very much nearer eyes than to margin of vertex; width of cheeks nearly twice that of eyes, with a conspicuous, flattened, subtriangular process opposite lower end of eye; vertex rather dull, punctures very fine and close, becoming relatively coarse and more separated on cheeks above, closer and irregular below, but lower surface broadly shining and impunctate; face below ocelli densely rugoso-punctate, conspicuously protuberant between antennae, punctures of supraclypeal area quite coarse and distinct but very close, clypeus with very fine, densely crowded punctures medially, these becoming coarse and more distinct laterally; pubescence white on face and cheeks, short but rather dense between antennae and eyes, more yellowish on clypeus and on lower surface of cheeks, very short and sparse on cheeks above, vertex with quite conspicuous, erect, black pubescence which does not hide surface; thorax with rather short, quite dense, white pubescence laterally and posteriorly, scutum with largely blackish, erect pubescence, this becoming pale across anterior margin, scutellum with somewhat more elongate, black hairs, with a few paler hairs toward posterior margin; scutum finely and closely punctate, punctures slightly separated only in center, those of scutelluni and axillae uniformly very fine and close; pleura dull beneath the pubescence, very closely punctate, more coarsely so below and finer above; lateral faces of propodeum somewhat smoother but dull and quite densely pubescent, posterior face rather dull, punctures close but exceedingly minute and vague; all basitarsi somewhat shorter and narrower than their tibiae; tegulae with exceedingly minute and rather close punctures; wings subhyaline basally, becoming somewhat infuscated apically, veins brownish to piceous; abdominal terga 2-5 more or less deeply grooved across base, basal margin of grooves subcarinate, apical margin of terga rather deeply depressed, with dense, entire, whitish fasciae; pubescence of tergum 1 whitish, rather copious and elongate, becoming dense at extreme sides, with some shorter, more apical, fuscous hairs; discal pubescence of following terga very short, erect and quite dense, entirely black; punctures of terga very fine and close throughout; apical margin of tergum 6 rather abruptly upturned, rather narrowly rounded, surface very densely and finely punctate, pubescence suberect and entirely black; sternum 6 subtriangular, with narrow apex, the apex slightly emarginate, surface uniformly covered with short, blackish scopal hairs; scopa otherwise pale yellow, the more basal sterna finely and closely punctate, punctures becoming more coarse and sparse on the more apical sterna, apical margins somewhat depressed, distinctly yellowishhyaline; sternal fasciae not evident.

MALE�Length 11-13 mm.; black, tegulae brownish-testaceous, front tarsi, and mid and hind spurs yellow; eyes subparallel; clypeal margin beneath beard nearly straight, with very shallow, median and sublateral emarginate areas; mandibles quite slender, obscurely 3-dentate, inferior process submedian, triangularly acute and densely pubescent; apical segment of flagellum very slightly dilated; lateral ocelli subequally distant from eyes and margin of vertex; cheeks subequal to eyes in width, with a shining, impunctate, concave area below, lower margin of this produced to form a conspicuous and rather slender process just below base of mandible; vertex and cheeks rather dull, punctures very fine and densely crowded, face dull, densely and finely rugosopunctate beneath dense pubescence; face with copious, erect, yellowish-white pubescence that largely obscures surface, cheeks white pubescent, this rather short �above, becoming dense and elongate below, vertex with erect and elongate yellowish hairs intermixed with shorter and more fuscous hairs; thorax with rather short, dense, white pubescence laterally and posteriorly, scutum with quite copious, erect and elongate fuscous hairs, becoming whitish anteriorly, scutellum with largely whitish pubescence; punctures of scutum fine and close, slightly separated only in center, densely crowded otherwise, those of scutellum and axillae uniformly fine and close; pleura dull, punctures rather shallow but very close, becoming densely crowded above; lateral faces of propodeum somewhat smoother, punctures shallow, very fine and close, posterior face rather dull, punctures quite close but exceedingly minute; front coxal spines very slender and elongate, anterior surface of coxae bare and somewhat shining, with a patch of 4 or 5 elongate, reddish bristles just before base spines; mid tibial spurs well developed; front tarsi bright yellow, basitarsus enormously expanded anteriorly and apically, very deeply excavated, inner basal margin of excavation with a short fringe of fuscous hairs, otherwise hairs entirely pale yellowish, the basitarsal scale reaching fully to the tip of segment 2, the more posterior part of 2 much shorter than that of 1 and 3, posterior fringe pale yellow, quite dense and elongate, more or less brownish beneath; outer surface of front tibiae and posterior surface of front femora piceous, other surfaces more or less yellowish or testaceous; mid and hind basitarsi slender and simple, largely dark, the more apical tarsal segments becoming more testaceous or brownish; tegulae shining, punctures exceedingly minute but rather close; wings subhyaline, veins brownish; abdominal terga 2-5 rather shallowly depressed across base, basal margin of these distinct but not conspicuously can- nate, apical margin of terga narrowly depressed on the more basal segments, becoming quite broad, more or less yellowish-hyaline and narrowly white fasciate on 4, these fasciae quite dense and conspicuous on 4 and 5; terga 1 and 2 with copious, elongate, pale pubescence, but 2 also with some shorter, more apical, fuscous pubescence, discal pubescence of 3 and 4 short, erect, quite copious and entirely black, that on 5 largely black, but more erect and elongate; punctures of terga very fine and close throughout; dorsal surface of tergum vertical, very densely and finely rugoso-punctate, carina rather short but distinct, with small, more or less rounded, median emargination, median teeth of apical margin very low, carinate, much closer to lateral angles than to each other, but these lateral angles not at all spinose; tergum 7 rather robust, obscurely angulate medially, but not produced; sterna 1-4 exposed, rather dull but very minutely and regularly punctate, punctures quite close but not crowded, apical margin depressed and yellowish-hyaline, that of 4 very slightly in- curved across median area; setose area ot sternum 5 broad and extensive, the setae curved and simple, apical margin slightly angulate medially (fig. 57); setose areas sternum 6 slightly separated, bilobate, the more basal lobes with large, closely set setae, the more apical pair with an apical fringe of 4 or 5 large, curved setae, apical marginal lobe extensive, somewhat narrowed and rounded apically; gonocoxites much narrowed above base, gradually dilated and obliquely compressed to the rounded tips, finely setose on inner surface (fig. 58).

DISTRIBUTION�The Pacific Coast to Quebec and the New England states, south to Texas and Georgia, June to September.

FLOWER RECORDS�Arctium, Aster, Brauneria, Carduus, Chrysanthemum, Engeron, Helianthus, Melilotus, Rudbeckia, Taraxacum, Trifolium, Verbena and Vernonia. Robertson (1929) records pugnata on the following: Asciepias, Blephilia, Cicuta Cirsium, Coreopsis, Dianthera, Lepachys, Nepeta, Silphium and Verbesina. The subspecific designation of this typical form of pugnata is made necessary by the occurrence of another form, pomonae Cockerell, in the Southwest.

Extracted from: Sheffield C. S., et al (2011). Leaf cutter and Mason Bees of the Genus Megachile Latreille (Hymenoptera; Megachilidae) in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 18

Megachile (Sayapis) pugnata Say, 1837

Megachile pugnatus Say, 1837. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 1: 408 (♂, ♀). Megachile scrobiculata Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus. 1: 191 (♂). Megachile bucephala Smith, 1853. Cat. Hym. Brit. Mus. 1: 193 (♀). Megachile disparilis Cresson, 1872. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 4: 264 (♂). Megachile lucrosa Cresson, 1872. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 4: 267 (♀). Gnathocera cephalica Provancher, 1882. Nat. Canad. 13: 233 (♀). Megachile temporalis Friese, 1903. Ztschr. System. Hym. Dipt. 3: 247 (♀ only). Megachile pugnata pomonae Cockerell, 1916. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist (8) 17: 278 (♀).

Diagnosis. The female of M. pugnata is distinct and can be recognized by the prominent robust process on the lower edge of the gena. The male of M. pugnata can be recognized by the combination of 3-dentate mandibles, T5 with white apical fascia, front basitarsus with brush of short, dark bristles reduced, not extending beyond its basal third, and apical third of boat-shaped dilation entirely covered on the outer side with dense appressed hairs. They are most similar to M. fidelis and M. mellitarsis. Males of M. mellitarsis have T5 without white apical fascia, and the front basitarsus with boat-shaped dilation elongated apically and extending to apex of 3rd tarsomere. Males of M. fidelis have the front basitarsus with brush of dark bristles extending nearly to apex, with boat-shaped dilation mostly bare and polished in apical third.

FEMALE: Length 12-18 mm.

Head. 1) compound eyes slightly divergent below; lateral ocelli very much nearer eyes than margin of vertex (5:7), 2) clypeus extremely short and very much thickened apically, about as long or only slightly longer medially than the thickened apical edge, margin with a rather broad, median, truncate protuberance and a pair of more lateral tubercles, 3) mandibles very broad apically, obscurely 5-dentate, the 4th tooth very low and rounded, not acute like remaining teeth, with a small incomplete cutting edge between 2nd and 3rd teeth (Plate 1, Figure 29), 4) gena nearly twice the width of compound eye (8:5), with a conspicuous, flattened, subtriangular process opposite lower end of eye, 5) vertex rather dull, punctures very fine and close, becoming relatively coarse and more separated on gena above, larger and more irregular below, lower surface of gena apical to process broadly shining and impunctate; frons densely rugosopunctate, conspicuously protuberant between antennae, punctures of supraclypeal area quite coarse and distinct but very close, with a small impunctate area along apical edge; clypeus with very fine, densely crowded punctures medially, becoming coarse and more distinct laterally, shiny and impunctate below margin, 6) pubescence white on face and gena, short but rather dense on paraocular area, more yellowish on clypeus and on lower surface of gena, very short and sparse on gena above, vertex with quite conspicuous, erect, black pubescence that does not hide surface, 7) F1 quadrate, subequal in length to pedicel and F2, remaining flagellomeres slightly longer than broad (3:2), apical flagellomere more elongate (4:2.5).

Mesosoma. 1) pubescence rather short, quite dense, white laterally and posteriorly, pubescence of mesoscutum largely black, sparse and erect, becoming pale across anterior margin, scutellum with somewhat more elongate, black hairs, with a few paler hairs toward posterior margin, 2) mesoscutum finely and closely punctate, punctures slightly separated only in centre, those of scutellum and axilla uniformly very fine and close; pleura dull, very closely punctate, more coarsely so below and finer above; propodeum somewhat smoother but dull and quite densely pubescent, punctures close but minute and vague, triangle dull and impunctate, 3) all basitarsi somewhat shorter and narrower than their tibiae, apical segments of legs somewhat reddish-brown, 4) tegula almost impunctate, a few minute and rather close punctures anteriorly, 5) wings subhyaline basally, becoming somewhat infuscated apically, veins brownish-black.

Metasoma. 1) elongate and parallel-sided, T2-T4 more or less deeply grooved across base, less so on T5, basal margin of grooves carinate, apical margin of terga rather deeply depressed, with dense, entire, whitish fasciae; pubescence of T1 whitish, rather copious and elongate, becoming dense at sides, with some shorter, more apical, brown hairs; discal pubescence T2-T6 very short, erect and quite dense, entirely black; punctures of terga very fine and close throughout; apical margin of T6 rather abruptly upturned, rather narrowly rounded, surface very densely and finely punctate, pubescence suberect and entirely black, 2) S6 subtriangular, with narrow slightly emarginated apex, S6 uniformly covered with short, blackish scopal hairs; scopa otherwise pale yellow, the more basal sterna finely and closely punctate, punctures becoming more coarse and sparse on the more apical sterna, apical margins somewhat depressed, distinctly yellowish-hyaline.

MALE: Length 11-13 mm.

Head. 1) compound eyes subparallel; lateral ocelli subequally distant from eyes and margin of vertex, 2) clypeal margin beneath pubescence nearly straight, with very shallow, median and sublateral emarginate areas, 3) mandibles quite slender, 3-dentate, lower process triangularly acute, covered with white pubescence, submedian in position, 4) gena wider than compound eye (9:7), with a shining, impunctate, concave area ventrally, its lower margin forming a conspicuous and rather slender process just below base of mandible, 5) vertex and gena rather dull, punctures very fine and densely crowded, face dull, densely and finely rugosopunctate beneath dense pubescence, 6) face with copious, erect, yellowish-white pubescence largely obscurring surface below level of ocelli, gena with white pubescence, rather short above, becoming dense and elongate below, vertex sparsely pubescent with erect and elongate brownish hairs, yellowish at lateral margin, 7) F1 slightly broader than long (2:1.5), longer than pedicel, and shorter than F2, which is slightly longer than broad (2.5:2), remaining flagellomeres longer than broad (3:2), apical flagellomere very slightly dilated, more elongate (4.5:2).

Mesosoma. 1) pubescence white, rather short and dense laterally and posteriorly, mesoscutum with quite copious, erect and elongate brownish hairs, becoming whitish anteriorly, scutellum with whitish pubescence, 2) punctures of mesoscutum fine and close, slightly separated only in centre, densely crowded otherwise, those of scutellum and axilla uniformly fine and slightly separated; pleura dull, punctures rather shallow but very close, becoming densely crowded above; propodeum somewhat smoother, punctures shallow, very fine and close, triangle rather dull, impunctate, 3) front coxal spine very slender and elongate, anterior surface of coxa bare and somewhat shining, with a patch of 4 or 5 elongate, reddish bristles just before base of spine; mid tibial spur well developed; front tarsus bright yellow, basitarsus enormously expanded anteriorly and apically, very deeply excavated, inner basal margin of excavation with a short fringe of brown hairs not extending beyond its basal third, the hairs otherwise entirely pale yellowish, the basitarsal scale extending fully to tip of tarsomere 2, the more posterior part of tarsomere 2 much shorter than that of 1 and 3, posterior fringe pale yellow, quite dense and elongate, more or less brownish beneath; outer surface of front tibia and posterior surface of front femur black, other surfaces more or less yellowish-brown; mid and hind basitarsi slender and simple, largely dark, the more apical tarsomeres becoming more yellowish-brown, spurs yellow, 4) tegula yellowish-brown, shining, impunctate except in anterior half, 5) wings subhyaline, veins brownish.Metasoma. 1) T2-T5 rather shallowly depressed across base, their basal margin distinct and carinate, T4 with a dense basal fascia of appressed yellow hairs arising from below the carinate lip (this often hidden under apical margin of T3); apical margin narrowly depressed on the more basal segments, becoming quite broad, more or less yellowish-hyaline and narrowly white fasciate, fasciae quite dense and conspicuous on T4 and T5; T1, and T2 basomedially with copious, elongate, pale pubescence, but T2 also with some shorter, more apical, brownish pubescence, discal pubescence of T3 and T4 short, erect, quite copious and entirely black, that on T5 largely black, but more erect and elongate; punctures of terga very fine and close throughout; dorsal surface of T6 vertical, very densely and finely rugosopunctate, carina rather short but distinct, with small, more or less rounded, median emargination, median teeth of apical margin very low, carinate, much closer to lateral angles than to each other, but these lateral angles not at all spinose; T7 rather robust, obscurely angulate medially, but not produced, 2) S1-S4 exposed, rather dull but very minutely and regularly punctate, punctures quite close but not crowded, apical margin depressed and yellowish-hyaline, that of S4 very slightly incurved across median area, apical margins with long pale hairs, though hardly forming fasciae, discal pubescence sparse and pale, not obscuring surface.

Genitalia. Plate 2.

Discussion. This common species is one of the most distinct and easily recognizable Megachile in Canada. It accepts trap nests (Medler 1964; Sheffield et al. 2008). Tepedino and Frohlich (1982) and Frohlich and Parker (1983) detail much of its biology. It is a floral specialist on Helianthus and has shown much promise as a manageable pollinator of sunflower (Tepedino and Frohlich 1982; Parker and Frohlich 1983). Divergence levels in CO1 (2.66%) suggest that the southwestern form of this species (M. pugnata pomonae) may be a distinct species, though further study is required.

Distribution: This is the most widespread member of the subgenus Sayapis; it occurs in southern Canada from NS-BC, extending north to southern NT and YT


Identification
Megachile pugnata is exceptionally distinctive in the female. The clypeus is shortened and thickened producing a vertical face in addition to the normal top face. There are two prominent submedial projections and one, broad, flattened median projection. The mandibles are longer than the eye. The mandible is widest distally and there is a prominent process on the lower margin of the inner cheek.

Extracted from: Mitchell, T. B. 1980. A Generic Revision of the Megachiline Bees of the Western Hemisphere (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). North Carolina State University. 1-93.

FEMALE

HEAD: 1. Ratio of median length of face to dis tance between outer margins of eyes - 25:45. 2. Eyes - Length, 28; lateral width, 10; ratio of upper, to maximum, to lower inter¬spaces - 30:33:35. Inner margins slightly di¬vergent below (A-3) and about straight (B-l). 3. Clypeus - Median length, 5; basal width, 15; apical margin, 28. Apical margin much thickened (A-3), resulting in a lower surface and an anterior surface that are about equal in their median length; anterior face finely and irregularly punctate, its lower margin with a short, median, truncate process, and a shining tubercle on each side, but widely re¬moved from the lateral angle; lower surface shining and impunctate, its lower margin straight (B-l) and simple (C-l), forming the line of attachment of the labrum; median length of anterior face much exceeded by the basal width (D-3); apical width about twice the basal width (E-l). 4. Supraclypeal area - Strongly convex (A-3); somewhat shining medially, but closely punctate on each side; median length about equal to upper surface of clypeus (B-2). 5. Parocular areas - Quite flat below level of antennae (A-1); width about equal to basal width of clypeus (B-l); carina distinct, strongly elevated below, not distinctly sep¬arated from eye (C-2). 6. Subocellar area - Strongly swollen below near antennae (A-3); very densely and finely rugose (B-l). 7. Antennal sockets - Distance to clypeus, 3; to eye, 8; to median ocellus, 10; and to each other, 8. Nearer clypeus than to eye (A-3); equidistant from eye and each other (B-l); slightly nearer eye than to median ocellus (C-2); and nearer clypeus than to each other (D-2). 8. Antennae - Length of scape, 2; flagellar segment one, 3; two, 2.5; six, 3; and ten, 5; breadth of six, 2.5. Median flagellar seg¬ments slightly longer than their breadths (A-2); apical segment much shorter than the scape (B-l). 9. Vertex - Surface nearly flat, ocellar triangle not elevated (A-3); occipital margin strongly incurved (B-2), not carinate (C-2).
10. Lateral ocelli - Distance to eye, 8; to occipital margin, 12; to each other, 5. Near¬er eye than to occipital margin (A-3); much nearer each other than to occipital margin (B-3); and much nearer each other than to eyes (C-2). 11. Genae - Maximum width, 17; width of eye in lateral view, 10; Maximum width great¬er than that of eye, in lateral view (A-3); somewhat narrower above (B-2); occipital mar¬gin not carinate (C-2), slightly protuberant below (D-l); hypostomal area smooth, bare and very shallowly concave (E-3). 12. Labrum - Length, 23; basal width, 18; apical width, 7. Basal width much exceeded by median length (A-2); apical width much ex¬ceeded by median length (B-3) and by the basal width (C-l). 13. Mandibles - General form elongate, but dentate margin fully equal to upper margin; apical margin obscurely 5-dentate (B-4); a bevelled cutting edge in second interspace only (D-l); submarginal groove distinct, ex¬tending from second tooth to inner angle, separating the smooth, dentate margin from the punctate upper surface; inferior sub-marginal line broadly curved, but extending to inner angle, and densely fringed; basal processes, either above or below absent (C-4). 14. Labial palpi - Segments 1 & 2 approx¬imately equal (A-1). MESOSOMA: 15. Scutum - Median length, 35; breadth at tegulae, 33. Surface evenly con¬vex (A-1); punctate, with setiferous pits (B-3); closely and finely punctate, crowded (C-7) except in center where they are slight-ly separated; median line distinct but fine (D-l); parapsidal lines visible as faint grooves (E-l) 16. Pronotal lobe - Transverse ridge low and obscure (A-1) 17. Mesepisterna - Surface very finely and densely punctate (A-1). 18. Scutellum - Median length, 10; basal breadth, 11. Posterior margin nearly straight (A-1); only slightly convex at midline (B-3); finely and closely punctate (C-l). 19. Axillae - Surface more finely and clos¬ely punctate than scutellum (A-2). 20. Metanotum - Lateral extensions poster¬ior to hind wing neither depressed nor excav¬ated beneath scutellar crest (A-4). 21. Ketepisterna - Unmodified. 22. Propodeal triangle - Posterior margin nearly horizontal laterally (A-2); but apex acute tB-1); median length much greater than the very short median groove below (C-3). 23. Fore wings - Total length, 128, radial cell, 36. Second recurrent vein nearer apex than first is to base of second submarginal cell (A-2); color subhyaline (B-2), veins fuscous (C-3). 24. Tegulae - Very minutely and closely punctate (A-l); color piceous (B-l).
25. Fore legs - Normal (A-l); tarsal claws with small but distinct basal teeth (B-l). 26. Hid legs - Normal, differing only in surface features of color, sculpture and pubescence. Latero-apical angles of basitarsi not produced (B-2) ; latero-apical angles of tarsi 2 and 3 also not produced (C-2). 27. Hind legs - Normal, differences only minor. Relative lengths (L) of tibiae, basitarsi, tarsi 2-5 and tibial spurs, and breadths (B) of tibiae and basitarsi. Tibiae Basitarsi Tarsi Tibial (L) (B) (L) (B) 2-5 spurs Fore 20 5 14 3 18 5 Mid 18 6 12 3.5 15 5 Hind 27 9 20 6.5 18 7 & 9 METASOMA: Relative breadths of terga 1-6. Tergum one, 36; two, 42; three, 44; four, 42; five, 39; and six, 30. 28. Basal tergum - Margin of concavity dis¬ tinct, but only subcarinate (A-2); concavity chiefly smooth and shining, punctate only toward midline and base (B-l); vertical fold shallowly sulcate (C-2); postgradular area about flat medially, broad laterally, forming the ventro-lateral areas beneath (D-l). 29-32. Terga 2-5 - Graduli linear and com¬plete, but not carinate Qi-l); pregradular areas normally covered by the preceding terga (B-l); pregradular sculpture usually not vis¬ible; postgradular areas slightly convex along midline (D-2); punctures unitormly close and fine (F-l); apical rims distinctly depressed medially, more deeply and broadly so lateral¬ly; apical fasciae dense and entire, confined to the apical rims; discal pubescence erect, short along median area of terga, more elong¬ate laterally, visible in profile and along lateral margins in dorsal view; color of dis¬cal hairs black; of fasciae, white. 33. Tergum 6 - Basal width, 30; slightly greater than median length (A-l); very slight¬ly concave toward apex (B-2); sculpture similar to the more basal terga; pubescence black across base, partially white toward apex. 34. Basal sternum - Apical margin somewhat expanded apically, margins of the ventro¬lateral areas of the tergum strongly diverg¬ent (A-2); punctures very fine and densely crowded (B-2); apical margin abruptly decliv¬ous medially, marking apex of the median ele-vation, surface sloping laterally, and thick¬ened margin sloping to a lateral point, near the ventro-lateral area (C-l); apical margin with a fringe of short, white hairs (D-l). 35. Sternum 2 - Basal margin deeply incurv¬ed, nearly reaching gradulus medially (A-l); gradulus indistinct (B-2); pregradular area nearly impunctate (C-l), usually covered; postgradular area very finely and closely punctate (D-l), covered in large part by fine, elongate, simple, scopal hairs (E-l). 36-38. Sterna 3-5 - Basal margins not deeply incurved. Graduli indistinct, indicated by the difference in sculpture of the pre- and post¬gradular areas (A-3); pregradular areas usual¬ly covered by the preceding sterna (B-l);post¬gradular areas very closely and finely punc¬tate toward graduli, but more coarsely and closely so toward apical margin (C-l); uni¬formly covered by elongate, simple, scopal hairs (D-l); apical margins narrowly smooth and shining (E-l), and not fasciate (F-l). Figure 3B. Head of female of Ewnegaohile pugnata. 39. Sternum 6 - Surface slightly convex (A-2); closely and finely punctate, and well covered with seopa hairs (B-l); apical mar¬gin narrowly rounded (C-2); apex quite dens¬ely fringed with short setae (D-l), without an apical lip.

MALE

HEAD:41. Ratio of median length (clypeal margin to median ocellus) to maximum width (between outer margins of eyes) - 30:44. 42. Eyes - Length,28; lateral width, 11; ratio of upper, to maximum, to lower inter¬ spaces - 27:30:30. Inner margins vary slight¬ ly convergent below (A-2), and straight (B-l). 43. Clypeus - Median length, 10; basal width, 10; apical margin, 25. Surface slight¬ly convex (A-2); apical margin slightly out-curved (B-2), with four very obscure, low tubercles (C-2); median length about equal to basal breadth (D-l); apical breadth about twice the basal breadth, or more (E-l). 44. Supraclypeal area - Median length, 10; Surface very slightly convex (A-2); length equal to that of clypeus (B-2). 45. Parocular areas - Maximum width, 6. Surface below level of antennae quite flat (A-1); maximum width about half that of clyp¬eus at base (B-2); carina elevated, more strongly so below, not separated from eye (C-2). 46. Subocellar area - Nearly flat (A-1); surface densely and finely rugoso-punctate (B-l), with a distinct, depressed median line (C-l).
47. Antennal sockets - Distance to clypeus, 7; to eye, 7; to median ocellus, 11; and to each other, 10. Equidistant from clypeus and eye (A-1); nearer eye than to each other (B-2) nearer eye than to median ocellus (C-2) ; near¬er clypeus than to each other (D-2); nearer clypeus than to median ocellus (E-2); and slightly nearer each other than to median ocellus (F-2). 48. Antennae - Relative lengths of scape,10; pedicel,2; flagellar segment one, 3; two, 2.5; six, 4; eleven, 5; and breadth of six, 2. Median flagellar segments much longer than their breadth (A-3); apical segment much shorter than scape (B-l).
49. Vertex - Surface broadly, transversely convex (A-1); occipital margin strongly in¬curved (B-2), not carinate (C-2). 50. Lateral ocelli - Distance to eye, 9; to occipital margin, 8; to each other, 5. Subequally distant from eye and occipital margin (A-1); much nearer each other than to occipital margin (B-3); and much nearer each other than to eyes (C-2). 51. Genae - Maximum width, 12; width of eye in lateral view, 11. Maximum width subequal to that of eye (A-1); strongly narrowed be¬low (B-l); hypostomal area with a shallow ex¬cavation just beneath base of mandible (C-3), inner hypostomal margin of this area with a slender, elongate process directed anteriorly.

52. Labrum - Median length, 15; basal width, 10; apical width, 8. Basal width much exceed¬ed by median length (A-2); apical width about half the median length (B-l). 53. Mandibles - 3-dentate (A-1); inferior process broadly basal or submedian, acutely triangular below (B-6). 54. Labial palpi - Segment one, 11; segment two, 14. Segment one considerably shorter than segment two (A-2). MESOSOMA: 55. Scutum - Median length, 30; breadth at tegulae, 30. Surface evenly convex (A-1); punctate, with setiferous pits (B-3); punctures close in center of disc, otherwise crowded (C-6 or 7); median line distinct but fine (D-l); parapsidal lines visible, but very fine and slightly elevated (E-2). 56. Pronotal lobe - Transverse ridge low and rounded (A-1), obscured by pubescence. 57. Mesepisterna - Surface finely and dense¬ly punctate (A-1); ventral spines or tuber¬cles lacking (B-2). 58. Scutellum - Median length, 10; basal breadth, 10. Posterior margin broadly rounded (A-2); slightly convex in profile, forming a continuous curve between scutum and propodeum (B-3); surface finely and closely punctate (C-l). 59. Axillae - Surface resembling that of scutellum, but more closely and finely punc¬tate (A-2). 60. Metanotum - Lateral extensions poster¬ior to base of hind wing only shallowly de¬pressed and excavated beneath carinate margin of scutellar crest (A-3). 61. Metepisterna - Unmodified. 62. Propodeal triangle - Inferior margin nearly horizontal laterally (A-2); but curv¬ing apically to a nearly acute apex (B-l); median length much greater than the very short median groove below (C-3). 63. Fore wings - Total length,97; radial cell, 17. Recurrent veins subequally distant from base and apex of second submarginal cell (A-1); subhyaline (B-2) , the veins brownish. 64. Tegulae - Minutely and closely punctate (A-1); color ferruginous (B-2). 65. Front coxae - Surface flat (A-2); dull, punctures minute and scattered (B-3); spines elongate and erect (C-3), with a group of two or three suberect, ferruginous bristles (D-2); densely white pubescent laterally (E-3) color piceous to dull ferruginous (F-2). 66. Mid coxae - Unmodified; white pubescent (A-1). 67. Hind coxae - Unmodified, white pubes¬cent on outer surface (A-1).

68. Trochanters - Front pair not produced posteriorly (A-2); length about equal to api¬cal breadth (B-l); ferruginous (C-2); length of mid pair greater than apical breadth (D-2); ferruginous to piceous (E-2); length of hind pair equal or nearly to apical width (F-l); color piceous to ferruginous (G-2). 69. Front femora - simple and unmodified (A-l); outer face more piceous, otherwise more reddish (B-5). 70. Mid femora - Anterior surface smooth, nearly impunctate (A-l); posterior surface convex (B-2), piceous to dark reddish (C-2). 71. Hind femora - Unmodified (A-l); dark red (B-2). 72. Front tibiae - Outer surface somewhat broader apically than at base (A-2); anterior and posterior faces much broader apically (B-2); outer face black to piceous, otherwise more yellowish (C-2). 73. Mid tibiae - Slightly broader medially than at base or apex of outer face; apex nor¬mal, with a well developed spur (B-l); ven¬tral ridge, with spur at its apex (C-l)4 74. Hind tibiae - Normal. 75. Front tarsi - Broadly dilated, much longer than segment 2, and anterior margin deeply excavated and produced apically (A-3); segments 2 & 3 also dilated, but less broadly so, and not at all excavated (B-2); segments 4 & 5 unmodified (C-1); posterior fringe den-se and conspicuous, hairs about equal in length to width of the segments (D-2); integ¬ument al color pale yellow, fringe more whit¬ish (E-6), basitarsal scale with a short fringe of short, dark hairs. 76. Mid tarsi - Basitarsi unmodified (A-l); tarsi 2-4 cordate, apical breadth about equal to median length (B-l); tarsus 5 unmodified (C-1); posterior fringe rudimentary, hairs short (D-l). 77. Hind tarsi - Basitarsi slender and sim¬ple, apex slightly narrower than base (A-2); tarsi 2-4 more elongate, length greater than apical breadth (B-2); tarsus 5 slender and elongate (C-1). 78. Basal tergum - Margin of concavity suhcarinate (A-2); concavity smooth and shining (B-l), a narrow marginal groove along each side toward base; vertical fold slightly sili¬cate (C-2); postgradular area very short and slightly convex medially (D-2). 79-82. Terga 2-5.- Graduli complete and sharply carinate (A-l), but usually covered; pregradular areas normally covered by preced¬ing terga (B-l), usually entirely impunctate (C-4); postgradular areas deeply channelled just posterior to the graduli (E-5); post¬gradular punctures fine and close on the more basal terga, becoming more widely separated or coarser on the more apical plates (F-l); apical rims quite broadly and deeply depres¬sed medially, as well as laterally; apical fasciae white, narrow but complete, confined to the depressed rims; basal fasciae, just posterior to the graduli, lacking; discal pubescence elongate and erect, visible in pro¬file, and along lateral margins in dorsal view (1-3), more copious and elongate on basal tergum. 83. Tergum 6 - Gradulus complete and sharp¬ly carinate (A-l); pregradular area impunc¬tate, and covered by tergum 5 (B-l); post¬gradular area densely rugose (C-1); trans¬verse, subapical carina of postgradular area forming an angle with surface above, as seen in profile (D-l); margin of carina with a small median emargination (E-l); lower surface of carina with a small, median concavity, otherwise irregularly rugose (F-3); neither median nor lateral teeth or angles evident (G-6). 84. Tergum 7 - Exposed surface (postgradu¬lar area) obtusely angulate (A-3), deeply and narrowly excavated just before the apex med¬ially. 85. Basal sternum - Apical margin expanded laterally, margins of ventro-lateral areas of tergum more divergent (A-2); margin only slightly declivous apically (B-4); apical margin and disc medially copiously pubescent (C-3). 86. Sternum 2 - Postgradular area normally exposed (A-l); basal margin deeply incurved, reaching gradulus medially, lateral elements of pregradular area thus separated; gradulus linear and complete (B-l), curving apically on each side beneath lateral margins of tergum; pregradular areas minutely pebbled, shining but hidden (C-1); postgradular area finely and closely punctate (D-l). 87 & 88. Sterna 3 & 4 - Postgradular areas normally exposed (A-l); basal margins incurv¬ed, but not reaching gradulus (B-2); gradulus linear and complete, but not carinate (C-1); pregradular areas minutely pebbled, punctures not evident (D-2); postgradular areas some¬what thickened apically (E-2); apical rims slightly depressed (F-l). 89. Sternum 5 - Entirely retracted (A-l); gradulus well defined (B-l); deeply incurved, reaching posterior margin over the broad, median area (C-l); apical pregradular pubes¬cence not located on distinct latero-apical sclerites (D-2); postgradular setae slender and simple, not at all dilated or otherwise specialized (£-1). 90. Sternum 6 - Setose postgraduJar areas narrowly separated medially (A-2); composed of lateral patches of specialized setae (B-l); apical lobe broad at base, margins convergent to the truncate apex (D-9).

91. Sternum 7 - Obsolescent. 92. Sternum 8 - Apical lobe broadly rounded aplcally, breadth not much greater than the median length, lateral margins not fringed, but surface partly covered apically with fine hairs (A-2). 93. Genitalia - Gonoforceps not protuberant at base (A-2); but are strongly constricted above base (B-2).


Names
Scientific source:

Supported by

Hosts · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Apocynaceae  Apocynum androsaemifolium @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Asclepias @ AMNH_BEE (1); CUIC_ENT (1); UCRC_ENT (1)
Asteraceae  Achillea millefolium @ BBSL (1)

Arctium minus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Aster rubrotinctus @ BBSL (1)

Chaenactis douglasii @ BBSL (1)

Chaenactis sp @ BBSL (1)

Cirsium arvense @ CUIC_ENT (7)

Cirsium sp @ BBSL (5)

Cirsium undulatum @ BBSL (3); AMNH_BEE (1); UCRC_ENT (2)

Cirsium vulgare @ AMNH_BEE (15); CUIC_ENT (5)

Cirsium @ AMNH_BEE (1); UCRC_ENT (1)

Coreopsis @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Echinacea pallida @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Echinacea @ AMNH_BEE (2)

Ericameria parryi @ BBSL (1)

Erigeron speciosus @ BBSL (1); DART_ENT (1)

Erigeron strigosus @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Grindelia sp @ BBSL (1)

Grindelia squarrosa @ BBSL (1); UCRC_ENT (25)

Helianthus pumilus @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Helianthus sp @ BBSL (6)

Helianthus tuberosus @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Helianthus @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Heliomeris multiflora @ DART_ENT (1)

Heliopsis helianthoides @ BBSL__ERR (1)

Heterotheca villosa @ DART_ENT (1)

Inula helenium @ CUIC_ENT (1)

Liatris spicata @ AMNH_BEE (1)

Rudbeckia hirta @ AMNH_BEE (1); CUIC_ENT (1); UCRC_ENT (1)

Rudbeckia @ AMNH_BEE (4)

Senecio triangularis @ BBSL (1)

Taraxacum officinale @ BBSL (2)

Wyethia amplexicaulis @ BBSL (1)
Capparaceae  Cleome serrulata @ BBSL (2)
Caprifoliaceae  Symphoricarpos @ CUIC_ENT (2)
Fabaceae  Melilotus @ AMNH_BEE (1)
Hydrophyllaceae  Phacelia sp @ BBSL (2)
Lamiaceae  Monarda pectinata @ UCRC_ENT (1)

Salvia farinacea @ CUIC_ENT (1)
Polemoniaceae  Aliciella mcvickerae @ UCRC_ENT (1)
_  Fabaceae sp @ BBSL (1)

Withheld @ BBSL__YOSE (48); BBSL (41); BBSL__ZION (4)

caneberry @ NLA (1)

cucurbit @ NLA (6)

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Updated: 2021-01-22 23:10:44 gmt
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