Cape York Peninsula to Townsville, QLD; tropical, west Pacific. The species is uncommon in Australia and may have been introduced.
is invasive in many parts of the world.
that conversion of the original AFD map of states, drainage basins and coastal and oceanic zones to IBRA and IMCRA regions may have produced errors. The new maps will be reviewed and corrected as updates occur.
The maps may not indicate the entire distribution. See further details below.
Head moderately large, shaped like a blunt awl. Gill openings merged into a single slit underneath head. Mouth large and protractile, both upper and lower jaw with tiny teeth. Eyes small, covered by skin, on upper side of head; interorbital distance long. Body cylindrical, elongated like a snake, posterior laterally compressed, tampering to a slender point; scales absent; lateral line complete. Pectoral and pelvic fins absent; dorsal and anal fins reduced to a skin fold and confluent with caudal fin; caudal fin small. Plain colored, dark brown dorsally, yellowish ventrally; irregular dark spots spread all over the body.
Demersal, occurs in streamlets, canals, ponds, swamps and paddy fields, prefers slowing running water, burrows in moist earth and rests inside, can be kept alive for a period of time during dry season there. Can breath atmospheric air. Nocturnal predator,
Extensively distributed in eastern Asia and islands nearby, ranging from India to China. Abundant in western portion of Taiwan.
Anguilliform body; no scales; no pectoral and pelvic fins; dorsal, caudal and anal fins confluent and reduced to a skin fold; gill openings merged into single slit underneath the head (Ref.
). Rice paddy eels are red to brown with a sprinkling of dark flecks across their backs; large mouths and small eyes (Ref.
Found in hill streams to lowland wetlands (Ref.
) often occurring in ephemeral waters (Ref.
). Adults are found in medium to large rivers, flooded fields and stagnant waters including sluggish flowing canals (Ref.
), in streamlets and estuaries (Ref.
). Benthic (Ref.
), burrowing in moist earth in dry season surviving for long periods without water (Ref
). Occasionally dug out in old taro fields, in Hawaii, long after the field has been drained; more frequently observed in stream clearing operations using heavy equipment to remove large amounts of silt and vegetation where the eels are hidden (Ref.
). Nocturnal predators devouring fishes, worms, crustaceans, and other small aquatic animals (Ref.
); also feed on detritus. Are protandrous hermaphrodites. The male guards and builds nest or burrow (Ref.
). Marketed fresh and can be kept alive for long periods of time as long as the skin is kept moist (Ref.
). Good flesh (Ref.
). Important fisheries throughout Southeast Asia (Ref.
Male builds a large free-floating bubblenest among the submerged vegetation close to the shoreline; eggs are spat into the nest after being laid; male guards the nest and continues to guard the young after hatching till they are on their own (Ref.
). Spawning occurs in shallow water (Ref.
). Sex reversal is completed in 8-30 weeks (Ref.
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00068 (0.00037 - 0.00123), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 2.9 ±0.28 se; Based on food items.
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 1,000).
Prior r = 0.31, 2 SD range = 0.12 - 0.81, log(r) = -1.17, SD log(r) = 0.48, Based on: 1 K, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
Luna, Susan M.
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