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Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758
SEA MULLET
Bully; Bully Mullet; Flathead Mullet; Grey Mullet; Hard-gut Mullet; Hardgut Mullet; Hardgut River Mullet; Mangrove Mullet; Poddies; Poddy Mullet; Sand Mullet; Striped Mullet; Mugil dobula Günther, 1861; Mugil gelatinosus Klunzinger, 1872; Mugil grandis Castelnau, 1879; Mugil hypselosoma Ogilby, 1897; Mugil marginalis De Vis, 1885; Mugil marginatus Saville-Kent, 1893; Mugil muelleri Klunzinger, 1879; Mugil oecur Ogilby, 1897

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Mugilidae   Mugil

Mugil cephalus
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Mugil cephalus

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Overview
Main identification features
  • 2nd dorsal fin and a: scales front and base only
  • lateral scales 37-43
  • inner row teeth: 2 points
  • pectoral not reaching origin 1st dorsal fin
  • a: iii, 8
Dorsal rays IV + I, 8; anal rays III, 8; fatty (adipose) tissue covering most of eye; lips thin, lower lip with a prominent median knob; mouth small, rear end of upper jaw reaching to level of anterior rim of eye; outer row of teeth in jaws mainly simple, inner row with 2 points; pectoral fin not reaching level of origin of first dorsal fin; scales in lateral series 37-43, second dorsal and anal with scales on front and base only.

Olive on back, silvery on sides, and white below; 6-7 brownish stripes on side; fins yellow in Galapagos-Peru form.

Size: grows to 135 cm.

Habitat: forms schools in sandy bottom areas, but large adults sometimes seen near the surface in clear water near reefs.

Depth: 0-125 m.

Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas; Southern California to the Gulf of California to Peru and Galapagos in our region.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 125 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: detritus; benthic microalgae; phytoplankton; zooplankton; pelagic fish eggs.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=38; Southern limit=-20; Western limit=-123; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=58; Longitudinal range=53.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Detritivore; Herbivore; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Beach; Estuary; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Freshwater; Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 135 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Freshwater; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
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  • Breder, C.M. Jr., 1936., Scientific results of the second oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee" 1926. Heterosomata to Pediculati from Panama to Lower California., Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Collect. Yale Univ., 2(3):1-56.
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  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1-1240.
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  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
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  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
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  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Rocha-Olivares , A. , Garber , N. M. and Stuck, K. C., 2000., High genetic diversity, large inter-oceanic divergence and historical demography of the striped mullet., Journal of Fish Biology, 2000(57):1134-1149.
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  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
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  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
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Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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