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Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836
WHITE MULLET
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Mugil curema
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Mugil curema

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Mugil curema
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Mugil curema
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • 2nd dorsal fin and a: completely scaled
  • lateral scales 35-40
  • top teeth: wide tips
  • pectoral not reaching dorsal fin origin
  • a: iii, 9
Dorsal rays IV + I, 8; anal rays III, 9 (juvenile 10); fatty (adipose) tissue covering most of eye; lips thin; lower lip with a prominent median knob; mouth small, rear end of upper jaw reaching to level between posterior nostril and front edge of eye; outer (primary) teeth in jaws easily visible with naked eye, distinctly curved, those an upper jaw with wide tips; upper jaw with broad toothless gap between outer (primary) row and inner (secondary) row of teeth; pectoral axillary scale 5-8 percent of standard length.; pectoral fin less than 1/5 standard length, not reaching under origin of dorsal fin; 35-40 lateral series scales, 7 around tail base; second dorsal and anal fins completely scaled.

Olive to bluish on back, silvery on sides, and white below; a small black blotch at upper base of pectoral fin; anal and pelvic fins yellowish, other fins often whitish.

Size: to 91 cm.

Habitat: occurs in mangrove estuaries and brackish lagoons, also near the surface in clear water.

Depth: 0-25 m.

Atlantic and Pacific sides of the Americas, and west Africa, mainly in tropical seas; in the eastern Pacific from southern California to the Gulf of California to Chile, plus the Revillagigedos, Galapagos and Cocos.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 25 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: benthic microalgae; detritus; zooplankton.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=34; Southern limit=-20; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=54; Longitudinal range=48.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Detritivore; Herbivore; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Bentho-Pelagic.
Global Endemism: New world (East Pacific + West Atlantic); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); TEP non-endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Reef and soft bottom; Freshwater; Reef (rock &/or coral); Rocks; Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 91 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Freshwater; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Near Surface; Surface; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
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  • Fowler, H.W., 1916., Cold-Blooded Vertebrates from Costa Rica and the Canal Zone., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 68:389-414.
  • Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Hildebrand , S.F. and Barton, O., 1949., A collection of fishes from Talara, Perú., Smithsonian Miscellaneus Collections, 111:1-36.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1925., Fishes of the Republic of El Salvador, Central America., Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries., 41:236-287.
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  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Bollman, C.H., 1890., Descriptions of new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-88, by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross'., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 12:149-183.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1-1240.
  • Jordan , and McGregor,., 1898., List of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo archipelago and neighboring islands., Rept. U.S. Fisheries Comm., 24:271-284.
  • Jordan, D.S., 1895., The fishes of Sinaloa., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2), 5:377-514.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
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  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
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  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
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  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.
  • Thomson, J. M., 1997., The mugilidae of the world., Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 41:457-562.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
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Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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