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Myliobatis californica Gill, 1865
Bat Ray; California bat ray

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Myliobatidae   Myliobatis

Myliobatis californica
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Myliobatis californica

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Main identification features
  • head wide, blunt
  • pectorals: tips blunt
  • back: dark;belly: white
Disc rhomboidal, wider than long; head blunt, raised, projecting well before disc; pectorals bluntly pointed, concave at rear, continue onto rostrum; eyes and spiracles on side of head; tail slender, about as long as disc, no tail fin; 1 large spine at base of tail after small dorsal fin; teeth in flat, pavement-like plates, with 7 series of plates; similar to M. peruvianus but is larger, has blunter pectoral tips and the dorsal fin origin in further forward (1X rather than 2X the length of the dorsal fin base after of the pelvic fin base).

Olive to dark brown to black above, white below.

Size: 180 cm wide.

Habitat: sand, mud and rocky bottoms, and algal beds.

Depth: 1-108 m.

Oregon to the Gulf of California.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos).
Depth Range Max: 108 m.
Depth Range Min: 1 m.
Diet: mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; mobile benthic worms; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=38; Southern limit=22; Western limit=-122; Eastern limit=-106; Latitudinal range=16; Longitudinal range=16.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva; No pelagic phase.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: TEP non-endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Rocks; Macroalgae; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef and soft bottom.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 180 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; California province, primarily; Continent only; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;

Scientific source:

Links to other sites

  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • De la Cruz , J. , Galvan , F. , Abitia , L. A. , Rodriguez , J. and Gutierrez, F. J., 1994., Lista sistematica de los peces marinos de Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico). Systematic List of marine fishes from Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur (Mexico)., Ciencias Marinas, 20:17-31.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Garman, S., 1913., The Plagiostomia (Sharks, Skates and Rays)., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 36:1-515.
  • Gill, T.N., 1865., Note on the family of myliobatoids, and on a new species of Aetobatis., Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 8:135-138.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1896., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part I., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1-1240.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Gilbert, C.H., 1880., Notes on a collection of fishes from San Diego, California., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 3:23-34.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Minckley, W.L., 2002., Fishes of the lowermost colorado river, its delta, and estuary: a commentary on biotic change. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:63-78.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Pondella II, D.J., Gintert, B.E., Cobb, J.R., Allen, L.G., 2005., Biogeography of the nearshore rocky-reef fishes at the southern and Baja California islands., Journal of Biogeography, 32:187-201.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.


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Number of matches : 14
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Myliobatis californica%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
California Bay Ray
ID: 0000 0000 0204 1235 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
California Bay Ray
ID: 0000 0000 0204 1236 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
California Bay Ray
ID: 0000 0000 0204 1238 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
California Bay Ray
ID: 0000 0000 0204 1233 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
California Bay Ray
ID: 0000 0000 0204 1237 [detail]
© 2004 Joseph Dougherty/

Myliobatis californica
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0704 0051 0011 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Myliobatis californica
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0704 0051 0044 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Myliobatis californica
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0904 0013 0075 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0477 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0479 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0480 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0481 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0483 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

Myliobatis californica
Myliobatis californica
ID: 0000 0000 0508 0484 [detail]
© 2008 Douglas Klug

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Myliobatis californica Gill , 1865

Bat eagle ray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Myliobatis californica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Google image Image of Myliobatis californica (Bat eagle ray) Myliobatis californica
Picture by Gotshall, D.W.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Myliobatidae (Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Gill .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 108 m (Ref. 96339 ).   Subtropical; 43°N - 5°S, 126°W - 85°W (Ref. 55258 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Oregon, USA to Gulf of California (Ref. 2850 ) and the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 28023 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 180 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850 ); common length : 100.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9257 ); max. published weight: 82.1 kg (Ref. 40637 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Commonly found in sandy and muddy bays and sloughs, also on rocky bottom and in kelp beds (Ref. 2850 ). Sometimes buries itself in sand (Ref. 2850 ). Found singly or in schools (Ref. 12951 ). Feeds on bivalves, snails, polychaetes, shrimps, and crabs (Ref. 9257 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Venomous spine on tail. Not fished commercially, but shows up as by-catch species (Ref. 9257 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and G. Notarbartolo di Sciara , 1995. Myliobatidae. Aguilas marinas. p. 765-768. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9257 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 13 September 2014

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690 )

Human uses

Aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 12.4 - 23, mean 20.6 (based on 34 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00119 - 0.01213), b=3.08 (2.82 - 3.34), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=3; tmax=23; k=0.09-0.22). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .

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