Elongate, compressed; dorsal rays IV or V (some spines often minute or embedded in adults) + I, 25-29; anal rays II + I, 15-17; gill rakers (including rudiments) 6-7 + 15-20; upper jaw very narrow and extending about to below anterior margin of eye; pectoral < head; no scutes; caudal fin base with a well developed lateral, fleshy keel on each side, and with dorsal and ventral groove.
Silvery with 6-7 black bars; white tips on upper and lower caudal fin lobes.
Size: reaches 70 cm.
Habitat: pelagic oceanic; usually in company with sharks, rays, turtles, or large fishes; juveniles found in floating weed or with jellyfishes.
Depth: 0-150 m.
Circumtropical; throughout our region except the upper Gulf of California.
Attributes Abundance: Common. Cites: Not listed. Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ). Depth Range Max: 150 m. Depth Range Min: 0 m. Diet: bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea; ectoparasites. Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=49; Southern limit=-17; Western limit=-125; Eastern limit=-71; Latitudinal range=66; Longitudinal range=54. Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva. Feeding Group: Carnivore. FishBase Habitat: Pelagic. Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species. Habitat: Large fishes (billfishes, rays, sharks, etc), turtles & whales; Water column. Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only. IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed. Length Max: 70 cm. Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species. Residency: Resident. Salinity: Marine; Marine Only. Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Water column only;
Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
Briggs, J.C., 1960., Fishes of worldwide (circumtropical) distribution., Copeia, 1960:171-180.
Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo . Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
Fowler, H.W., 1944., Results of the Fifth George Vanderbilt Expedition (1941) (Bahamas, Caribbean sea, Panama, Galapagos Archipelago and Mexican Pacific Islands). The Fishes., Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel., Monographs, 6:57-529.
Humann, P., 1993., Reef Fish Identification: Galapagos., New World Publishing:192pp.
Hunter, J. R. and Mitchell, C. T., 1966., Association of fishes with flotsam in the offshore waters of Central America., Fishery Bulletin, 66:13-29.
Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
Lea, R.N. and Walker Jr., H.J., 1995., Record of the bigeye trevally, Caranx sexfasciatus, and Mexican lookdown, Selene brevoorti, with notes on other carangids from California., Calif. Fish & Game, 81:89-95.
Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.
Timor Transition (1), Tasmania Province (10), Southeast Transition (11), Central Eastern Province (12), Tasman Basin Province (13), Lord Howe Province (14), Central Eastern Transition (15), Kenn Transition (16), Kenn Province (17), Northeast Province (18), Northeast Transition (19), Timor Province (2), Cape Province (20), Norfolk Island Province (21), Cocos (Keeling) Island Province (22), Christmas Island Province (23), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Northwest Transition (3), Southwest Shelf Transition (30), Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northwest Province (4), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41), Central Western Transition (5), Central Western Province (6), Southwest Transition (7), Southern Province (8), West Tasmania Transition (9)
D. IV-V, I+26-28; A. II (rudiment with growth), I+17; P. i+18; G.R. 6+16; vertebrate 10+15. A cutaneous keel on each side of caudal peduncle well developed even in a relatively young stage. First dorsal fin do not connect by a membrane, except for those in very young. Finlet none. In live fish, 6 or 7 black bands against a light silvery background, but there also is a transient coloration (possibly aggressive display) with bands disappearing and most of fish silvery white with 3 broad blue patched in tandem across back; in fresh or preserved specimens, head dark, 5 or 6 dark, broad body bands and a similar band at end of caudal peduncle, bands 3 to 6 extending through soft dorsal- and anal-fin membranes, and the bands persistent at all sizes; rest of body bluish (fresh) or light to dusky; white tips prominent on upper and lower lobes of caudal fin, and smaller white tips on anterior lobes of second dorsal and anal fins; fins otherwise dusky to dark.
Oceanic species with a semi-obligate commensal relationship with sharks, rays, other bony fishes and turtles. Juveniles are frequently found in association with jellyfish; the larvae are widespread in epipelagic oceanic waters. Feeds on scraps of host's l
Widespread circumtropical species. It is rare and only found in southwestern Taiwanese waters.
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Circumtropical in tropical seas. Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Argentina (Ref.
). Eastern Atlantic: British Isles (rare vagrant), Norway and Bay of Biscay to Namibia, including the Mediterranean and Canary Islands. Eastern Pacific: Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) to the Galapagos Islands (Ref.
) and Chile (Ref.
). Common throughout the Indian Ocean (Ref.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
(total): 5 - 6;
: 15 - 17. Body elongate, slender, and not strongly compressed; posterior end of upper jaw located at anterior rim of eye; dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines followed by another spine and 25 to 29 soft rays (IV-V+I 25-29); lateral line without scutes; caudal peduncle with well developed fleshy keels and with dorsal and ventral peduncular fossae (Ref.
). Body dark to pale bluish, with 6-7 broad, dark bars; white tips on caudal lobes and on second dorsal and anal lobes (Ref.
Oceanic species with a semi-obligate commensal relationship with sharks, rays, other bony fishes and turtles (Ref.
). Young are usually associated with jellyfish and drifting seaweed (Ref.
). Feed on scraps of host's left over, parasites and excrement; also on small fishes and invertebrates (Ref.
). Eggs are pelagic (Ref.
). Marketed fresh and salted or dried (Ref.
). Captured at the surface using hand nets (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 7.9 - 28.1, mean 20.9 (based on 3025 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00641 - 0.02973), b=2.94 (2.75 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.4 ±0.43 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 0.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei
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