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Negaprion brevirostris (Poey, 1868)
LEMON SHARK
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Negaprion brevirostris
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Negaprion brevirostris

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Negaprion brevirostris
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Negaprion brevirostris
Negaprion brevirostris
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Negaprion brevirostris

Negaprion brevirostris
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Negaprion brevirostris
español

Overview
Main identification features A large stocky shark; snout short and broad, somewhat rounded; narrow, dagger-like, smooth-pointed teeth in both jaws; 5 gill slits, last 2 over pectoral; spiracles usually absent (occasionally with very small spiracles); no ridge on back between dorsal fins; origin of first dorsal fin behind rear margin of pectoral fins; second dorsal fin about same size or only slightly smaller than first dorsal fin; pectoral fins broad and slightly curved.

Pale yellow brown on back and sides, yellowish or whitish below.

Attains about 340 cm; size at birth 60-65 cm.

A common inshore shark seen in a variety of habitats including rocky reefs, estuaries, and river mouths (may enter fresh water).

Depth: 0-90 m.

Tropical waters of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific (Baja and the Gulf of California to Peru, Malpelo).
Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 90 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: octopus/squid/cuttlefish; mobile benthic gastropods/bivalves; mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs); bony fishes; sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=32; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=41; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); TEP non-endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Mud; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Sand & gravel; Water column; Reef (rock &/or coral); Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef and soft bottom.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 340 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Mid Water; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1923., The marine fishes of Panama. Part I., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:1-330.
  • Poey, F., 1868., Synopsis piscium cubensium. Catalogo Razonado de los peces de la isla de Cuba., Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba, 2:279-484.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villareal-Cavazos, A., Reyes-Bonilla, H., Bermúdez-Almada, B. and Arizpe-Covarrubias, O., 2000., Los peces del arrecife de Cabo Pulmo, Golfo de California, México: Lista sistemática y aspectos de abundancia y biogeografía., Rev. Biol. Trop., 48:413-424.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Negaprion&speciesname=brevirostris ---> https://fishbase.mnhn.fr/summary/Negaprion-brevirostris.html
Negaprion brevirostris, Lemon shark : fisheries, gamefish
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Negaprion brevirostris ( Poey , 1868 )

Lemon shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Negaprion brevirostris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Negaprion: negatus (L.), to deny; prion (Gr.), saw, referring to lack of saw-like serrations on teeth cusps. ( See ETYFish ) ;   brevirostris: Latin for having a wide forehead, referring to very broad, depressed head [treated as a junior synonym of N. brevirostris by some workers]. ( See ETYFish ) .
More on author: Poey .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 92 m (Ref. 244 ). Subtropical; 45°N - 33°S, 114°W - 14°E (Ref. 55192 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas, and the Caribbean; also in Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 26938 ). Northeast Atlantic: Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire and probably wide-ranging off West Africa, but this requires confirmation. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico and the Gulf of California to Ecuador.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 239 - ? cm
Max length : 340 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938 ); common length : 240 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 ); max. published weight: 183.7 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 31395 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

A brownish shark with yellow overtones but no conspicuous markings. Large second dorsal fin nearly same size as first dorsal (Ref. 26938 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs on continental and insular shelves, frequenting mangrove fringes, coral keys, docks, sand or coral mud bottoms, saline creeks, enclosed bays or sounds, and river mouths. May enter fresh water. Occasionally moves into the open ocean, near or at the surface, apparently for purposes of migration. May rest motionless on the bottom (Ref. 9710 ). May occur singly or in small groups. Feeds mainly on fish but also takes crustaceans and mollusks. Viviparous, with 4 to 17 young in a litter. Size at birth 60 to 65 cm. Has been involved in several attacks on people. Meat is utilized for human consumption, hides for leather, fins for shark-fin soup base, liver oil for vitamins, and carcasses for fish meal. Marketed fresh, dried-salted and frozen (Ref. 9987 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449 ), with 5 to 17 embryos (Ref. 9253 ). Both male and female during precopulatory and courtship swim with body axes in parallel (Ref. 49562 , 51112 ). During copulation, the pair performs coordinated swimming (Ref. 49562 , 51112 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2bcd); Date assessed: 04 September 2020

CITES

Appendix II: International trade monitored

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 244 )





Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO - Fisheries: landings ; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Fisheries: landings ; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 21.9 - 28, mean 25.6 °C (based on 714 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00257 - 0.00934), b=3.11 (2.95 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.3   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies. Generation time: 9.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.54(?); tm=12.7; tmax=25; Fec = 4-17; rmax = 0.012). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100). Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649 ):  Very high vulnerability (76 of 100). Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 2.73 [0.51, 15.56] mg/100g; Iron = 0.307 [0.074, 0.937] mg/100g; Protein = 22.4 [20.0, 24.6] %; Omega3 = 0.145 [0.049, 0.381] g/100g; Selenium = 15.2 [4.5, 49.2] μg/100g; VitaminA = 29.7 [7.6, 116.9] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.449 [0.209, 0.900] mg/100g (wet weight);

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