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Nomeus gronovii (Gmelin, 1789)
Bluebottle Fish; Portuguese Man-o'-war Fish; Portuguese Man-o-war Fish; Shepherd; Shepherd Fish; Nomeus dyscritus Whitley, 1931; Gobius gronovii Gmelin, 1789; Man-of-war Fish; Man-of-war fish -

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Nomeidae   Nomeus

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Nomeus gronovii
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Nomeus gronovii

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Main identification features
  • elongate
  • d: origin behind pectoral base
  • scales before eyes
  • tongue: without teeth
  • pelvic origin before/under pectoral base
  • juveniles: pelvics very large
Man-of-war fish

Dorsal rays IX-XII + I, 24-28, origin of 1st dorsal behind pectoral base; anal rays I or II, 24-29; pectoral rays 19-24; pelvic fins of juvenile greatly enlarged, origin under or before pectoral base; gill rakers on first arch 8 + 15 -19; scales on head to before eye; body elongate; tongue without teeth.

Juveniles silvery with black bars and spots, pelvic fins black with white blotches; adults uniformly dark brown.

Size: reaches 40 cm.

Inhabits surface layers of the high seas; young are associated with drifting Man-of-War siphonophores (Physalia).

Depth: 0-20 m.

Worldwide in warm temperate and tropical seas. The tip of Baja California to the eastern Gulf of California to Peruand the oceanic islands.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 20 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: pelagic jellyfish/ctenophores.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=29; Southern limit=-4; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=33; Longitudinal range=37.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore; Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Jellyfish; Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 40 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;

Scientific source:

Links to other sites

  • Ahlstrom , E. H. , Butler , J. L..and Sumida, B. Y., 1976., Pelagic stromateoid fishes (Pisces, Perciformes) of the eastern Pacific: Kinds, distributions and early life histories and observations on five of these from the northwest Atlantic., Bull. Mar. Sci., 26:285-402.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Gmelin, J. F., 1789., Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species; cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decimo tertia, aucta, reformata. 3 vols. in 9 parts. Lipsiae, 1788-93., Systema Naturae Linné, 1:1033-1516.
  • Grove , J.S. and Lavenberg, R. J., 1997., The fishes of the Galápagos islands., Stanford University Press:863 pp.
  • Kendall , W.C. and Radcliffe, L., 1912., The shore fishes. Reports on the scientific results of the expedition to the eastern tropical Pacific, ... by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer ALBATROSS, from October, 1904, to March, 1905, Lieut. Commander L.M. Garret, U.S.N., Commanding. XXV., Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 35(3):75-171.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1925., The marine fishes of Panama. Part II., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:331-707.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.


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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Nomeidae  
 Genus Nomeus  
  Nomeus gronovii    (Gmelin, 1789) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Eleotris mauritii Gobius albula Gobius gronovii Nomeus dyscritus Nomeus gronovi Nomeus maculatus Nomeus maculosus Nomeus mauritii Nomeus oxyurus Nomeus peronii   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002)
Character: Body elongate. Snout blunt. Mouth small, barely reaching beyond anterior margin of eye; jaws teeth small, in a single series; palatines, vomerine and tongue toothless. First dorsal fin with IX to XI long and fragile spines; second dorsal fin with 23 to 27 soft rays preceded by I or II spines; anal fin with I-II spines and 24 to 29 soft rays, slightly shorter than soft dorsal fin; pectoral fins extending far beyond orgin of anal fin, with 21 to 23 soft rays; caudal fin deeply forked. Scales on cheek not reaching anterior margin of eye. Juveniles whitish or silvery with dark blue mottlings; pelvic fins black. Dark blue above, side silvery with patches of dark blue. Pelvic fin with inner rays joined to abdomen by membrane for its entire length. 
Habitat: Found offshore in warm waters. Juveniles pelagic in coastal and offshore waters down to at least 30 m, but adults possibly demersal in deep water. Occurs in association with floating Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia, feeding on its tentacles and gonads and 
Distribution: Widely distributed in all tropical and temperate seas although unrecorded from the Mediterranean and most of the eastern Atlantic Ocean. It is very rare and sometime found in the coastal Taiwanese waters. 
Utility: No commercial value. 
Name Code: 382210
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