Seven large gill slits, none over pectoral base; head and snout wide, rounded; eyes small; upper teeth small, with 1 large oblique point; lower teeth large, wide with saw-like row of small teeth along top; 1 dorsal fin, at rear of body near tail; tail with small lower lobe.
Grey above, white below; many small black spots scattered over body and fins.
Size: 300 cm.
Habitat: demersal and midwater; sandy bottoms.
Depth: 0-570 m.
A subtropical to warm temperate species from the Pacific, both sides of the Atlantic and the south-west Indian Ocean; enters the northern (Baja and the Gulf of California) and southern (Colombia to Peru) fringes of our region.
Attributes Abundance: Common. Cites: Not listed. Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ); Antitropical (North and South temperate). Depth Range Max: 570 m. Depth Range Min: 0 m. Diet: bony fishes; sharks/rays; sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds. Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40. Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva. Feeding Group: Carnivore. FishBase Habitat: Demersal. Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); TEP non-endemic; West + East Pacific (but not Central); "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species. Habitat: Mud; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Sand & gravel; Rocks; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef and soft bottom; Water column. Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only. IUCN Red List: Data deficient; Listed. Length Max: 300 cm. Regional Endemism: Continent only; Continent; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; California + Peruvian provinces, primarily; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; All species. Residency: Resident. Salinity: Marine; Marine Only. Water Column Position: Bottom; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;
Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(1):1-249.
Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo . Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
Perón, F., 1807., Voyage de Découvertes aux Terres Australes, exécuté par ordre de sa majesté l'Empereur et Roi, sur les Corvettes la Géographe, la Naturaliste et la Goulette le Casuarina, pendant les années 1800, 1801, 1803 et 1804. Paris., Voyage Terres Australes, 1:1-496.
New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Extra Distribution Information
Broken Bay, NSW (33Âº34Â´S) to Esperance, WA (121Âº53Â´E); temperate, discontinuous (North Pacific, New Zealand, South America, South Africa).
Southwest Shelf Province (31), Great Australian Bight Shelf Transition (32), Spencer Gulf Shelf Province (33), Western Bass Strait Shelf Transition (34), Bass Strait Shelf Province (35), Tasmanian Shelf Province (36), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38)
A large-sized, broad-headed, small-eyed seven-gilled shark. Head bluntly pointed, with 7 pairs of gill slits on both sides of head. Eyes small. Mouth wide. Jaws with large lower comblike teeth, which is high and short, with mesial serrations, a low cusp, and 5 or 6 distal cusplets in adults. Caudal peduncle short, distance from dorsal fin insertion to upper caudal origin about equal to the length of dorsal fin base. Body usually possess numerous small black spots.
A benthic, neritic species. Live on the continental shelves. Ovoviviparous, litter size large, up to 82 young. Maximum size about 290 cm un TL. Size at birth estimated to be about 45-53 cm. Males maturing at 150-180 cm and females at 192-208 cm.
Western South Atlantic from southern Brazil to northern Argentina. Eastern South Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean from Namibia, southern Africa to India. Western Pacific from southern Japan to the Koreas, China, Taiwan, Australia, and New Zealand. Easter
A rare species in Taiwan area, sometimes taken by bottom longline or bottom trawls. Flesh utilized as fresh for human consumption.
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Notorynchus&speciesname=cepedianus ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Notorynchus-cepedianus.html http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Notorynchus-cepedianus.html ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Notorynchus-cepedianus.html
Circumglobal: In tropical to temperate waters; except North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Southwest Atlantic: southern Brazil to northern Argentina. Southeast Atlantic: Namibia to East London, South Africa (Ref.
). Western Pacific: southern Japan to New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: British Columbia, Canada to Chile. Record from India maybe erroneous.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 192 - 208 cm
Max length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 150 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 107.0 kg (Ref.
); max. reported age: 49 years (Ref.
: 123 - 157. A large seven-gilled cowshark (Ref.
) with a wide head, short and blunt snout, and fusiform body. Dorsal fin small, origin may vary from over insertion of pelvic fins to over free rear tips of pelvic fins. Anal fin smaller than dorsal fin. Tooth count 15-16/13. Reddish-brown to silvery-grey or olive-brown with numerous small black spots on body and fins; cream below (Ref.
Found on the continental shelf, often in shallow water (Ref.
). Occurs close inshore, in bays and estuaries (Ref.
), with larger individuals ranging into deeper waters offshore and deep channels in bays (Ref.
). Usually cruising steadily and slowly near the bottom (sometimes in water as shallow as a meter), but sometimes at the surface (Ref.
). Can dash at speed when attacking prey (Ref.
). Feeds on anything, including other sharks, rays, chimaeras, bony fish, hagfish, dolphin and porpoise meat, seals, shark egg cases, sea snails and mammalian carrion, including rats and humans (Ref.
). Ovoviviparous (Ref.
), with 82 to 95 young in a litter (Ref.
). Aggressive when provoked, and regarded as potentially dangerous to people in open waters (Ref.
). It has attacked divers in captivity and may be involved in a few shark attacks off California and South Africa (Ref.
). Often caught by anglers from the shore (Ref.
). Utilized for human consumption, its skin for leather, and its liver as a source of oil (Ref.
Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding solely on yolk (Ref.
), with number of young reaching 82 in a litter. Gravid females apparently drop their young in shallow bays. Size at birth between 40 (Ref.
) and 53 (Ref.
) cm. Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref.
). Gestation period 12 months. The reproductive cycle appears to be biennial (Ref.
, 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref.