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Parapsettus panamensis F. Steindachner, 1876
PANAMA SPADEFISH
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Ephippidae   Parapsettus

Parapsettus panamensis
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Parapsettus panamensis

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Parapsettus panamensis
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Parapsettus panamensis
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • snout less than eye; hump before eye
  • adult - dorsal fin spines isolated, last is longest
  • no bars
Dorsal rays IX, 28; dorsal spines very short and free, scarcely rising above surface of the midline scales, the last spine tallest; anal rays III, 24; pectoral rays 18; body somewhat disclike and laterally compressed; snout shorter than eye, very blunt, with hump over eyes; dorsal and anal spines very low in comparison with soft parts of these fins; a band of brush-like teeth in jaws, the outer row the largest; pelvic fins very small.

Silvery grey with dusky blackish fins; pectorals and caudal fin with yellowish wash.

Size: grows to 40 cm.

Inhabits sand and mud bottoms.

Depth: 3-20 m.

SW and central eastern Gulf of California to Peru.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 20 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: sessile molluscs; sessile worms; sponges/seasquirts/bryozoa; sessile crustacea.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=29; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-112; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=38; Longitudinal range=34.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Omnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Demersal.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Estuary; Mud; Sand & gravel; Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove); Soft bottom only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 40 cm.
Regional Endemism: Continent; Continent only; TEP endemic; Continental TEP endemic; 3 provinces (Cortez + Mexican + Panamic) endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Brackish; Marine; Freshwater.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Balart , E. F. , Castro-Aguirre , J. L. , Aurioles-Gamboa , D. , García-Rodriguez , F. and Villavicencio-Garayzar, C., 1995., Adiciones a la ictiofauna de Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México., Hidrobiologica, 5:79-85.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castri-Aguirre, J.L., Espinoza-Pérez, H. and Schmitter-Soto, J.J., 2002., Lista sitemática, biogeográfica y ecológica de la ictiofauna estuarino lagunar y vicaria de México. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:117-142.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L., 1999., Ictiofauna estuarino-lagunar y vicaria de México., Editorial Limusa S.A. de C.V.: 1-629pp.
  • Cuesta, T.C., 1932., Lista de los peces de las costas de la Baja California., Inst. Biol. Mexico, Anal, 3(1):75-80.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1928., The marine fishes of Panama. Part III., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:709-1045.
  • Orellana, J.J., 1985., Marine Fishes of Los Cóbanos: Fishes of El Salvador., Sigma Found:126pp.
  • Phillips, P. C., 1981., Annotated Checklist of Fishes at Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 29:45-58.
  • Rubio , R. E. A. and Estupiñan, F., 1990., Ictiofauna del Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga, un Analisis de su Estructura y Perspectivas para su Manejo., Memorias del VII Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias y Tecnologías del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :660-670.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1986., Notas sobre la ictiofauna de la Isla de Gorgona, Colombia., Boletin Ecotropica. Univ. Bog. Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 13:86-112.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Starks, E. C., 1906., On a Collection of fishes made by P. O. Simons in Ecuador and Peru., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 30:761-800.
  • Steindachner, F., 1876., Ichthyologische Beiträage (III). Bemerkungen über Serranus nebulifer und S. clathratus sp. Gird., Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 72:29-96.
  • Thomson , D.A. , Findley , L.T. and Kerstitch, A.N., 2000., Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez., University of Texas Press(Revised Ed.):353.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Parapsettus panamensis, Panama spadefish
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Parapsettus panamensis ( Steindachner , 1876 )

Panama spadefish Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Parapsettus panamensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Parapsettus panamensis (Panama spadefish) Parapsettus panamensis
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Acanthuriformes (Surgeonfishes) > Ephippidae (Spadefishes, batfishes and scats)
Etymology: Parapsettus: Greek, para = the side of + Greek psetta = grouper (Ref. 45335 ) .
More on author: Steindachner .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated. Tropical; 28°N - 11°S, 111°W - 77°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 124487 ); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763 ); max. published weight: 793.12 g (Ref. 124487 )

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Demersal over coral reefs and rocky bottoms of shallow waters (Ref. 9299 ). Feeds on invertebrates (Ref. 9299 ). Maximum TL of at least 30 cm (Ref. 9299 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Thomson, D.A. , 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 130435 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 02 May 2008

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes : genus , species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome , nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go , Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201 ): 22.9 - 28.9, mean 27 °C (based on 193 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804 ):  PD 50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03090 (0.01556 - 0.06136), b=2.94 (2.76 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.37 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100). Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 55.6 [29.8, 89.5] mg/100g; Iron = 0.583 [0.357, 0.914] mg/100g; Protein = 18.7 [17.6, 19.8] %; Omega3 = 0.111 [0.072, 0.169] g/100g; Selenium = 30.6 [18.5, 54.6] μg/100g; VitaminA = 59.4 [18.3, 183.4] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.08 [0.76, 1.54] mg/100g (wet weight);

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Updated: 2024-07-19 13:27:45 gmt
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