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Pareques viola (Gilbert, 1898)
GUNGO HIGHHAT
Lined highhat

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Sciaenidae   Pareques

Pareques viola
© Copyright Ross Robertson, 2006 · 12
Pareques viola

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Pareques viola
© Copyright Roger Steene, 2006 · 0
Pareques viola
Pareques viola
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Pareques viola
español

Overview
Main identification features
  • dark grey
  • 1st dorsal fin : ix, front 1/2 black
  • juvenile: 4 thick + 3 thin stripes
  • operculum: scales rough
Dorsal rays IX + I, 40-41; anal rays II, 7-8; pectoral rays 15- 17; pored lateral-line scales 50-56; gill rakers on lower limb of first arch 6, total about 17; snout blunt, projecting slightly beyond upper jaw; mouth inferior, more or less horizontal; lower jaw without barbels; eye relatively large, 3.6-4.1 in head length; teeth in villiform band, those in outer row of upper jaw enlarged and canine-like; margin of preopercle without serrations or spines, but membranous edge with fine hairs; tail fin rounded, central rays longest; second dorsal and anal fins covered with a thick scale sheath; operculum with rough scales.

Color overall charcoal, including fins; often a purplish sheen on head and body; mouth whitish; front of first dorsal fin black. Small juveniles are white with 4 thick + 3 thin black stripes and black bars on the spinous dorsal and pelvic fins, the stripes increase in number in larger juveniles, but gradually disappear in subadults.

Maximum size to 25 cm.

Inhabits rocky coastal reefs; adults are secretive, emerging from crevices at dusk to feed during the night; juveniles form small aggregations close to shelter.

Depth: 3-35 m.

Panama to Peru, Malpelo.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 35 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs).
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=9; Southern limit=-4; Western limit=-83; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=13; Longitudinal range=5.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic; East Pacific endemic; All species.
Habitat: Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 25 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); TEP endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Bottom only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Aburto-Oropeza , O. and Balart, E. F., 2001., Community structure of reef fish in several habitats of a rocky reef in the Gulf of California., Marine Ecology, 22:283-305.
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen III. Vertebrados - Parte 2., FAO3:1201-1813.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Jordan , D.S. and Evermann, B.W., 1898., The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. Part II., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 47:1241-2183.
  • Lopez , M. I. and Bussing, W. A., 1982., Lista provisional de los peces marinos de la Costa Rica., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 30(1):5-26.
  • Madrid Vera , J. , Ruíz Luna , A. and Rosado Bravo, I., 1998., Peces de la plataforma continental de Michoacán y sus relaciones regionales en el Pacífico mexicano., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 42(2):267-276.
  • Meek , S.E. and Hildebrand, S.F., 1925., The marine fishes of Panama. Part II., Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. Publ., XV:331-707.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Fishes collected from the Revillagigedo Islands during the 1954-1958 cruises of the "Marijean."., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 4:10pp.
  • Ricker, K.E., 1959., Mexican shore and pelagic fishes collected from Acapulco to Cape San Lucas during the 1957 cruise of the "Marijean"., Univ. Brit. Columbia Inst. Fish., Mus. Contrib., 3:18pp.
  • Rodríguez-Romero, J., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sanchez, F.J., Aguilar-Palomino, B., Arvizú-Martínez, J., 1998., Ecology of fish communities from the soft bottoms of Bahía Concepción, México., Arch. Fish. Mar. Res., 46:61-76.
  • Rubio, E.A., 1988., Estudio taxonomico de la ictiofauna acompañante del camaron en areas costeras del Pacifico de Colombia., Memorias del VI Seminario Nacional de las Ciencias del Mar. Comisión Colombiana de Oceanografía. Bogota, Colombia., :169-183.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Walker, B. W. and Baldwin, W. J., 1964., Provisional check list of fishes of the Revillagigedo islands., 18 pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Pareques viola (Gilbert , 1898)

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Pictures | Google image Image of Pareques viola (Gungo highhat) Pareques viola
Juvenile picture by Allen, G.R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
  More on author: Gilbert .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated.   Tropical; 32°N -

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: throughout Gulf of California south to Peru. Recorded in the Galapagos Islands during the 1982-83 El Niño (Ref. 9405 ).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118 ); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9118 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Body elongate, moderately compressed, and deep, with a strongly arched dorsal profile; snout prominent; mouth small and sub-terminal; lower jaw enclosed by upper; chin with 5 pores but without barbels; edge of preopercle slightly serrate; lower branch of first gill arch with 6 gill rakers; second dorsal fin very long, with 32 to 33 soft rays; body uniformly dark, from purplish bronze to grayish brown; fins dark or blackish (Ref. 55763 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults are secretive nocturnal fish that hide under ledges by day and come out only at night to feed on the epifauna of the substrate. The adults sometimes form large inactive aggregations in caves, but little or no feeding occurs. Schools of juveniles appear only in the summer.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chao, L.N. , 1995. Sciaenidae. Corvinas, barbiches, bombaches, corvinatas, corvinetas, corvinillas, lambes, pescadillas, roncachos, verrugatos. p. 1427-1518. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para identificacion de especies para los fines de la pesca. Pacifico Centro-oriental. 3 volumes. 1813 p. (Ref. 9118 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 24 May 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

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FAO areas
Ecosystems
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Ecology
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Common names
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Metabolism
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Fecundity
Eggs
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Age/Size
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Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 20.6 - 29.1, mean 25.1 (based on 236 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00427 - 0.01860), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.37 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (22 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Bailly, Nicolas Fish Forum
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