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Parthenium hysterophorus L.
SANTA-MARIA
Parthenium Weed; Parthenium lobatum Buckley; Santa Maria feverfew; Bitterweed; Carrot Grass; Santa Maria

Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Asteraceae   Parthenium

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Parthenium hysterophorus, Senna tora and Impatiens balsamina population
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus, Senna tora and Impatiens balsamina population
Parthenium hysterophorus, Impatiens balsamina, Senna tora and Hyptis suaveolens
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus, Impatiens balsamina, Senna tora and Hyptis suaveolens

Parthenium hysterophorus, Impatiens balsamina, Senna tora and Hyptis suaveolens
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus, Impatiens balsamina, Senna tora and Hyptis suaveolens
Parthenium hysterophorus, Impatiens balsamina, Senna tora and Hyptis suaveolens
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus, Impatiens balsamina, Senna tora and Hyptis suaveolens

Parthenium hysterophorus
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields

Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields

Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields

Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields

Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields
© Pankaj Oudhia, 2008-2013 · 0
Parthenium hysterophorus infestation in Aloe vera fields

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Cicadellidae  Empoasca abrupta @ III (2)

Empoasca erigeron @ III (1)
Erysiphaceae  Oidium @ BPI (2)
Membracidae  Entylia carinata @ NCSU (4)
Miridae  Cyrtopeltocoris albofasciatus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Cyrtopeltocoris nudipronotum @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Cyrtopeltocoris rubripes @ AMNH_PBI (6)

Cyrtopeltocoris @ AMNH_PBI (3)

Deraeocoris nebulosus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Lygus lineolaris @ MEMU_ENT (27)

Polymerus basalis @ MEMU_ENT (14)

Pseudatomoscelis seriatus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Reuteroscopus unknown @ AMNH_PBI (95)

Rhinacloa basalis @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Spanagonicus albofasciatus @ MEMU_ENT (1)

Taylorilygus apicalis @ MEMU_ENT (11)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Cercosporella dominicana @ BPI (2)

Cercosporella @ BPI (1)
Peronosporaceae  Bremia domingensis @ BPI (2)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia abrupta @ BPI (1)

Puccinia melampodii @ BPI (3)

Puccinia parthenii @ BPI (2)

Puccinia partheniicola @ BPI (8)

Puccinia schileana @ BPI (4)

Puccinia xanthii @ BPI (1)
Synchytriaceae  Synchytrium macrosporum @ BPI (1)
_  Bifidostylus omnivorus @ AMNH_PBI (13)

Dicyphylus brachyscome @ AMNH_PBI (2)

Halophylus atriplicis @ AMNH_PBI (9)

Maculiphylus eremophilae @ AMNH_PBI (7)

Neocyrtopeltocoris triangularis @ AMNH_PBI (8)

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Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Parthenium hysterophorus
L., Asteraceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?   yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?   no

Risk assessment results:   Reject, score: 18 ( Go to the risk assessment )

Common name(s): [ more details ]

Chinese : yin jiao ju

English : Santa Maria, bitterweed, carrot grass, false ragweed, feverfew, parthenium weed, ragweed parthenium, whitetop

French : fausse camomille

Spanish : escoba amarga

Habit:   herb

Description:   "Taprooted annual herbs 3-10 dm tall; stems unbranched in lower part, branched in upper part, longitudinally striate, hirsute.  Lower leaves in a basal rosette, these deciduous at maturity and stem leaves remaining, 3-20 cm long, 2-10 cm wide, bipinnatifid or pinnatifid.  Heads small, numerous in open panicles; rays white, 0.6 mm long; disk corollas cream-colored, ca. 1 mm long; pappus of 2 petaloid scales inserted close to the corolla on either side, entire or notched.  Achenes black, obovate, 2-2.5 mm long"  (Wagner et al ., 1999; p. 347).

Description from the Flora of China online.
Description from the Flora of North America online.
Description from the Digital Flora of Taiwan.

Habitat/ecology:   "A pioneer species it invades grazing land, disturbed areas, roadsides and cultivated areas" (Smith, 2002; p. 64). "A weed of croplands, pastures, and natural and recreation areas.  Can cause 90% reduction in carrying capacity of pastures.  Contains sesquiterpines and phonolics, which makes parthenium weed allelopathic (suppressive) and causes dermatitis and other allergic reactions in humans and livestock, especially horses.  High water requirement.  Does best in neutral to high pH soils, less prolific on other soils"  (Motooka et al ., 2003). "In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in low elevation, dry pastures or along roadsides." (Wagner et al ., 1999; p. 347). In New Caledonia, "espèce largement répandue et parfois envahissante" (MacKee, 1994; p. 37).  In Taiwan, "widely naturalized on open seashores and in lowland waste places throughout the island"  ( Digital Flora of Taiwan ).

Propagation:   "Seed is dispersed by wind, water, as a contaminant of harvested material and by vehicles, machinery or animals. Seeds are light and produced in large quantities, often within three weeks of germination" (Smith, 2002; p. 64).

Native range:   Tropical America, but widely naturalized.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 63)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: Moore 682
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: Grant 4514
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6132 (PAP)
Naturalisée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 347)
Kona. Voucher cited: Kawasaki s. n.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 347)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 347)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 347)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: E. Funk s.n. (BISH)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Sarasin 482 (Z)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2200
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45864
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 43813
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
Renevier, Alain/Cherrier, Jean-Francois (1991) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 44070
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Largement répandue et parfois envahissante.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Brousmiche 739, Blanchon 799 (NOU), MacKee 16068, MacKee 29584, MacKee 30768
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23464
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 64)
Found at Limmen Bight and the Borroloola region.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 64)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fields, roadsides; below 1500 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 285)
In wasteland.
Japan
Japan
Japan introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 190)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St.  &
Island group
Location Cited status  &
Cited as invasive  &
Cited as cultivated  &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference  &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 266)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
Invasive Species Specialist Group (2017)

Comments:   Moderately invasive in New Caledonia (Meyer, 2000; p. 100). A "weed of national significance" in Australia. "A declared noxious weed in Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia" (Smith, 2002; p. 64).

Control:  

Physical:   "Australian authorities have imposed strict quarantines on contaminated equipment and stock to avoid spread into new areas.  Since the weed only invades bare soil, good pasture management is effective for prevention"  (Motooka et al ., 2003).

Chemical: "Effective herbicides include 2,4-D, atrazine, hexazinone, and metsulfuron. Triclopyr is effective on most Asteraceae"  (Motooka et al ., 2003).

Biological:   "Australian scientists report the moth Epiblema strenuana promising.  They are also looking at the rust Puccina abrupta var. parthenenicicola and fungi that affect the weed in Mexico"  (Motooka et al ., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 26 OCT 2001 and was last updated on 8 JAN 2013.

Following modified from Flora of Taiwan, National Taiwan University
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http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PAHY ---> https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PAHY
https://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=PAHY ---> http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PAHY
http://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PAHY ---> https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PAHY
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Parthenium hysterophorus L.
Santa Maria feverfew

Image of Parthenium hysterophorus

General Information
Symbol: PAHY
Group: Dicot
Family: Asteraceae
Duration: Annual
Growth Habit : Forb/herb
Native Status : HI   I
L48   I
PR   I
VI   I
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Plants-NRCS Logos
green round image for nativity Native blue round image for introduced Introduced ocre round image for introduced and nativity Both white round image for no status Absent/Unreported
image for native, but no county data Native, No County Data image for introduced, but no county data Introduced, No County Data both introduced and native, but no county data Both, No County Data
Native Status:
lower 48 status L48    Alaska status AK    Hawaii status HI    Puerto Rico status PR    Virgin Islands status VI    Navassa Island NAV    Canada status CAN    Greenland status GL    Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM    North America NA   

Images

click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Parthenium thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Vol. 3: 465. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society . Scanned by Omnitek Inc . Usage Requirements .

slideshow

Synonyms

Symbol Scientific Name
PALO7 Parthenium lobatum Buckley

Classification

Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report.
Rank Scientific Name and Common Name
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Asteridae
Order Asterales
Family Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae – Aster family
Genus Parthenium L. – feverfew
Species Parthenium hysterophorus L. – Santa Maria feverfew

Subordinate Taxa

This plant has no children

Legal Status

U.S. Weed Information
Parthenium hysterophorus Santa Maria feverfew This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S.
SWSS Southern Weed Science Society. 1998. Weeds of the United States and Canada. CD-ROM . Southern Weed Science Society. Champaign, Illinois.

Wetland Status

Interpreting Wetland Status

Top Level Regions
Caribbean FAC
Hawaii UPL
North America
Arid West FAC
Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain FAC
Eastern Mountains and Piedmont FAC
Great Plains FAC
Midwest FAC
Northcentral & Northeast UPL

Related Links

More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (PAHY)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PAHY)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (PALO7)
Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan - Dearborn) (PAHY)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (PAHY)

Wildlife

Food

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Cover

Source Large Mammals Small Mammals Water Birds Terrestrial Birds

Description of Values

Value Class Food Cover


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Following modified from Flora of North America
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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 21 | Asteraceae | Parthenium

7. Parthenium hysterophorus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 988. 1753.

Annuals, (10—)30—120+ cm. Leaf blades ovate to elliptic, 30—180+ × 10—50(—90+) mm, (1—)2-pinnately lobed (ultimate lobes lanceolate to linear, 3—50 × 2—15 mm), faces sparsely to densely scabrellous and gland-dotted (seldom with additional erect hairs 1—2 mm). Heads obscurely radiate, borne in open, paniculiform arrays. Peduncles 1—8(—15+) mm. Phyllaries: outer 5(—6), lance-elliptic, 2—4 mm, inner 5(—6) ovate to ± orbiculate, 2.5—4 mm. Pistillate florets 5(—6); corolla laminae reniform or orbiculate to oblong, 0.3—1 mm. Disc florets 12—30[—60]. Cypselae obovoid, 1.5—2(—3.5) mm; pappus-like enations erect, deltate to ovate, 0.5—1 mm (sometimes a third, subulate spur near apex adaxially). 2 n = 34.

Flowering Mar—Nov. Disturbed sites; 0—300 m; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ill., Kans., La., Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., Ohio, Okla., Pa., Tex., Va.; Mexico; introduced in subtropical, tropical, and warm-temperate New World and Old World.

In some places, especially in Old World, Parthenium hysterophorus causes serious contact dermatitis in humans. The plants should be handled with caution.

Updated: 2020-09-24 16:04:08 gmt
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