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Parupeneus heptacanthus (Lacepede, 1802)
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Mullidae  
 Genus Parupeneus  
  Parupeneus heptacanthus    (Lacepède, 1802) 
Provider: Kwang-Tsao Shao 
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Synonyms: Parupenaeus cinnabarinus Parupeneus cinnabarinus Parupeneus pleurospilos Parupeneus pleurospilus Parupeneus sp. 1 Parupeneus sp.1 Pseudupeneus heptacanthus Pseudupeneus pleurospilos Pseudupeneus pleurospilus Pseudupeneus seychellensis Pseudupeneus xanthopurpureus details
Citation: The Live Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, Vol.5(FAO, 2001)
Character: Body slightly elongate, and moderately compressed. Chin with 2 moderately long slender barbels, reaching beyond rear edge of preopercle. Snout moderate; dorsal profile of head convex; mouth small, maxilla nearly or just reaching a vertical at posterior nostril; posterior end of maxilla evenly convex; a single row of well-spaced, stout, conical teeth in jaws; no teeth on roof of mouth. First gill arch with 6 or 7 gill rakers on upper limb, 20 to 23 on lower limb (total 26 to 30). Two well-separated dorsal fins, the first with VIII spines, the second fin with 9 soft rays; first dorsal-fin spine very short; longest dorsal-fin spine 1.45 to 1.75 times in head length; last ray of second dorsal and anal fins slightly longer than penultimate ray; anal fin with I spine and 6 soft rays; pectoral-fin rays 15 to 17 (usually 16). Lateral-line scales 27 or 28; 3 rows of scales between dorsal fins; 8 or 9 rows of scales along upper part of caudal peduncle. Body brownish yellow to light red, the edges of the scales darker, shading to silvery white below; centres of scales of back with a pale blue to pearly spot; a small reddish brown spot on upper side of body of adults just below seventh and eighth lateral-line scales; faint iridescent blue lines extending dorsoposteriorly and ventroanteriorly from eye, and often a parallel one on cheek and snout below eye; second dorsal and anal fins with faint pale blue to pink lines, alternating with yellowish. 
Habitat: Occurs singly or in small groups, over muddy, sandy, rubble, or seagrass bottoms of lagoon and seaward reefs, usually below 20 m. 
Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters of Indo-Pacific from Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan and Lord Howe Island; throughout Micronesia. It is common in waters around Taiwan. 
Utility: Flesh is fairly good for human consumption. 
Name Code: 382172
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
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