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Plectropomus leopardus (Lacépède, 1802)
COMMON CORAL TROUT
Blue-spot Trout; Bluedotted Coraltrout; Leopard Cod; Leopard Coral-trout; Leopard Coralgrouper; Leopard Trout; Plectropoma maculatum leopardus Lacépède, 1802; Plectropomus maculatus Bloch, 1790; Holocentrus leopardus Lacépède, 1802

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Serranidae   Plectropomus


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/43e13442-afd0-443b-96fb-9a462eeea542 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/43e13442-afd0-443b-96fb-9a462eeea542
https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/43e13442-afd0-443b-96fb-9a462eeea542 ---> http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/711e0f45-6c0f-4d11-a8bf-09b1225384d3;jsessionid=62805C40C9FDD47EF37672C9741E23CA
http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/711e0f45-6c0f-4d11-a8bf-09b1225384d3;jsessionid=62805C40C9FDD47EF37672C9741E23CA ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/711e0f45-6c0f-4d11-a8bf-09b1225384d3;jsessionid=62805C40C9FDD47EF37672C9741E23CA
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Perciformes  
 Family Serranidae  
 Genus Plectropomus  
  Plectropomus leopardus    (Lacepède, 1802) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Acanthistius leopardinus Chorististium maculatum Holocentrus leopardus Paracanthistius suji Plectropoma cyanostigma Plectropoma leopardinus Plectropoma maculatum a Plectropoma maculatum b Plectropoma maculatum c Plectropoma maculatum leopardus Plectropomus maculatum   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993)
Character: Dorsal fin with VII or VIII slender spines and 10 to 12 rays, the third or fourth spine longest, its length contained 3.2 to 4.2 times in head length, the longest soft ray contained 2.2 to 2.7 times in head length; base of spinous part of dorsal fin subequal to that of soft-rayed part; anal fin with III slender spines and 8 rays, the first 1 or 2 spines embedded and difficult to see in large fish; pectoral-fin rays 15 to 17; pectoral fins subequal to pelvic fins, pectoral-fin length contained 1.9 to 2.2 times in head length; caudal fin emarginate, the caudal concavity contained 5 to 12 times in head length. Lateral-line scales 89 to 99. 
Habitat: P. leopardus occurs on coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region at depths of 3 to 100 m. Goeden (1978) studied age, growth and biology of P. leopardus from the Great Barrier Reef. Annual growth increments and age were determined from modal sep 
Distribution: Western Pacific, from southern Japan to Australia (Queensland and Western Australia) and eastward to the Caroline Islands and Fiji. We have also examined specimens from Hong Kong, Viet Nam, Philippines, Indonesia, Palau Islands, Papua New Guinea, and New  
Utility: P. leopardus is a popular food fish and sometimes causes ciguatera. 
Name Code: 382589
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
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Following modified from CalPhotos
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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Plectropomus+leopardus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Plectropomus+leopardus&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 3
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Plectropomus leopardus%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

Click on the thumbnail to see an enlargement

Plectropomus leopardus
Plectropomus leopardus
Leopard Coralgrouper
ID: 0091 3183 0985 0076 [detail]
Eugene Weber
© 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Plectropomus leopardus
Plectropomus leopardus
Common Coral Trout
ID: 0000 0000 0805 0915 [detail]
© 2005 Nathan Litjens

Plectropomus leopardus
Plectropomus leopardus
Common Coral Trout
ID: 0000 0000 0805 0916 [detail]
© 2005 Nathan Litjens

Using these photos: A variety of organizations and individuals have contributed photographs to CalPhotos. Please follow the usage guidelines provided with each image. Use and copyright information, as well as other details about the photo such as the date and the location, are available by clicking on the [detail] link under the thumbnail. See also: Using the Photos in CalPhotos .   


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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Plectropomus&speciesname=leopardus ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Plectropomus&speciesname=leopardus
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Plectropomus&speciesname=leopardus ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Plectropomus-leopardus.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède , 1802)

Leopard coralgrouper Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Plectropomus leopardus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Plectropomus leopardus (Leopard coralgrouper) Plectropomus leopardus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Plectropomus: Greek,plektron = anything to strike with, spur + Greek, poma = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Lacepède .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 100 m (Ref. 9710 ).   Tropical; 24°C - ? (Ref. 2160 ); 35°N - 30°S, 99°E - 178°W (Ref. 5222 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: from Western Australia, eastward to the Caroline Islands and Fiji: from southern Japan to Australia (Queensland); also recently recorded from Tonga (Ref. 53797 ). Often misidentified as Plectropomus maculatus .

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 21 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6390 ); common length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. ); max. published weight: 23.6 kg (Ref. 6390 ); max. reported age: 26 years (Ref. 3639 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 7 - 8; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-12; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VIII,11; A III,8; pectoral rays 14-17 (modally 16); lateral line scales 89-99, in longitudinal series 112-127 scales; interorbital space no embedded scales; gill rakers on first gill arch developed 1-3 + 6-10; front of jaws with a pair of large canine teeth and side of lower jaw with 1-4 large canines; body elongate, its greatest depth 2.9-3.6 in SL; truncate to slightly emarginate caudal fin; pectoral fins 2.0-2.3 in HL; pelvic fins 2.0-2.4 in HL; Head, body and fins with numerous blue spots on red, pale grey or olive to dark brown background; caudal fin with a narrow white posterior margin except near the corners; juveniles (< 5 cm) brown on upper 2/3 of side with scattered blue spots, broad whitish stripe from eye to caudal fin base, white on lower head and yellowish ventrally on side (Ref. 4787 , 54980 , 90102 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabit coral-rich areas of lagoon reefs and mid-shelf reefs (Ref. 6390 , 48635 ). Solitary (Ref. 90102 ). Inactive at night, hiding under ledges (Ref. 9710 ). Juveniles have a demersal existence in shallow water in reef habitats, especially around coral rubble (Ref. 27259 ). Adults feed mainly on fish (Ref. 6390 ), juveniles feed on small fish and invertebrates such as crustaceans and squid (Ref. 27261 ). A protogynous hermaphrodite (Ref. 55367 ). Form several spawning aggregations on a reef occurring around the new moon (Ref. 27259 ). Eggs float just below the surface (Ref. 6390 ). Larvae are pelagic (Ref. 6390 ). P. leopardus is used in cage culture; P. maculatus in Ref. 3081 was probably a mixture of P. maculatus and P. leopardus ; the Plectropomus sp. used for the experiments reported in Capra et al., 1988 (Ref. 4719 ) consisted predominantly of P. leopardus , with some P. maculatus (M.F. Capra, pers. comm.). On the Great Barrier Reef, its maximum lifespan is 14 years (Ref. 37816 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

A monandric species (Ref. 55367 ) but now confirmed for diandry (Ref. 103751 ). Estimated size at sex change occurs at 32.1 cm TL and 16 years of age (Ref. 55367 ). Courtship behavior: a male approaches 1 or more females from behind, changing color from dark brown to brownish white while the edges of median fins remained dark. As the male gets near, it flicks its dorsal and pelvic fins eliciting a mild lateral display from the female. The male rolls onto its side and shakes from side to side as its abdomen passes the female. Takes 15 seconds (Ref. 2160 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall , 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4821 )




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial FAO(fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.7 - 29, mean 28 (based on 1194 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01023 - 0.01289), b=3.05 (3.02 - 3.08), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.4   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2-4; tmax=26; Fec=457,900). Prior r = 0.71, 95% CL = 0.47 - 1.06, Based on 1 stock assessment. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. Modified by Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei Fish Forum
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