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Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes, 1831)
Rough Scale Soldierfish; Rough-scaled Soldierfish; Shy Soldierfish; Myripristis lima Valenciennes, 1831; Shy Soldier

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Holocentridae   Plectrypops

Plectrypops lima
© Copyright Gerald Allen, 2006 · 0
Plectrypops lima

Click on map for details about points.


Main identification features
  • head large, eyes at top
  • bright red
  • no large spines on operculum, preoperculum
Head large; eyes near top; dorsal rays XII,14-16; anal rays IV,10-12; lateral-line scales 39-42; scales above lateral line to base of middle dorsal spines 4; scales very rough to the touch; preoperculum and operculum without large spines; dorsal spines relatively short, the longest about 3.0 in head length.

Uniform bright red.

Size: grows to 16 cm.

Habitat: a seldom seen fish that hides in caves and crevices during the day.

Depth: 3-40 m.

Widespread in the tropical Indo-Pacific; known in the eastern Pacific from Cocos and Clipperton and the Revillagigedos.

Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo).
Depth Range Max: 40 m.
Depth Range Min: 3 m.
Diet: zooplankton; bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=20; Southern limit=6; Western limit=-115; Eastern limit=-87; Latitudinal range=14; Longitudinal range=28.
Egg Type: Pelagic; Pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Planktivore.
FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated.
Global Endemism: All Pacific (West + Central + East); Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Corals; Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom); Rocks; Reef (rock &/or coral); Reef only.
Inshore Offshore: Inshore; Inshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 16 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Island (s) only; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Vagrant.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Bottom; Near Bottom; Bottom + water column;

Scientific source:

Links to other sites

  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1994., Fishes of the Tropical Eastern Pacific., Crawford House Press Pty Ltd:1-332.
  • Allen , G.R. and Robertson, D.R., 1997., An Annotated Checklist of the fishes of Clipperton Atoll, Tropical Eastern Pacific., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 45:813-843.
  • Cuvier , G. and Valenciennes, A., 1831., Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome septième. Livre septième. Des Squamipennes. Livre huitième. Des poissons à pharyngiens labyrinthiformes., Histoire Naturelle Des Poissons, 7:1-531.
  • Robertson , D.R. and Allen, G.A., 1996., Zoogeography of the shorefish fauna of Clipperton Atoll., Coral Reefs, 15:121-131.
  • Rosenblatt , R.H. , McCosker , J.E. and Rubinoff, I., 1972., Indo-west Pacific fishes from the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama., Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 234:18pp.
  • Snodgrass , R. E. and Heller, E., 1905., Papers from the Hopkins Stanford Galapagos expedition, 1898-1899. XVII. Shorefishes of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos and Galapagos Island., Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., 6:333-427.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/f9298485-9b5b-4207-ab21-5f66b7bf4a2b/ ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/f9298485-9b5b-4207-ab21-5f66b7bf4a2b/
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Actinopterygii  
 Order Beryciformes  
 Family Holocentridae  
 Genus Plectrypops  
  Plectrypops lima    (Valenciennes, 1831) 
Provider: Chen, Jeng-Ping 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Holotrachys lima Myripristis lima Myripristis lina Plectotrypops lima Plectripops lima   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993) Fishes of Japan(Nakabo, 2002) Fishbase(2008) Randall, J. E., G. R. Allen and R. C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea.. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p
Character: Dorsal fin with XII spines and 14-16 soft rays; anal fin with IV spines and 10-12 soft rays. Scale coarsely ctenoid; no pair of tooth patches at front of lower jaw outside gape; color is uniform bright red. 
Habitat: An uncommon inhabitant of reefs; hides in deep recesses during the day and roams the reef at night. Feeds on small crustaceans, crustacean larvae, and small fishes. 
Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Hawaii, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe; throughout Micronesia. Eastern Pacific: Easter Island. 
Utility: Not commercial food species; edible. 
Name Code: 380927
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Plectrypops&speciesname=lima ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Plectrypops&speciesname=lima
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Plectrypops&speciesname=lima ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Plectrypops-lima.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Plectrypops lima (Valenciennes , 1831)

Shy soldier Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Plectrypops lima   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Plectrypops lima (Shy soldier) Plectrypops lima
Picture by Steene, R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beryciformes (Sawbellies) > Holocentridae (Squirrelfishes, soldierfishes) > Myripristinae
Etymology: Plectrypops: Greek,plektron = anything to strike with, spur + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Valenciennes .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 40 m (Ref. 30874 ).   Tropical; 32°N - 32°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: East Africa to Hawaii, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Eastern Pacific: Easter Island.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-16; Anal spines : 4; Anal soft rays : 10 - 12. Scale coarsely ctenoid; no pair of tooth patches at front of lower jaw outside gape; color is uniform bright red (Ref. 2334 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

An uncommon inhabitant of reefs; hides in deep crevices during the day and roams the reef at night (Ref. 9710 ). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302 ). Feeds on small crustaceans, crustacean larvae, and small fishes (Ref. 9710 ). Solitary and seldom seen; cryptic (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Randall, John E. | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene , 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 04 March 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


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Internet sources

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.5 - 28.8, mean 27.5 (based on 432 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00692 - 0.04567), b=3.02 (2.79 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.5   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .

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