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Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus, 1758
EUROPEAN PLAICE
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Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa

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Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa
Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa

Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa
Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa

Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa
Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa

Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa
Pleuronectes platessa
© Copyright Malcolm Storey 2011-2118 · 3
Pleuronectes platessa
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Pleuronectes&speciesname=platessa ---> http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Pleuronectes-platessa.html

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Pleuronectes platessa   Linnaeus , 1758

European plaice Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Pleuronectes platessa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image Image of Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice) Pleuronectes platessa
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335 ) .   More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388 ), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388 ).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504 ); 72°N - 36°N, 54°W - 45°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus . It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 30.8 , range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4705 ); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397 ); max. published weight: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173 ); max. reported age: 50 years (Ref. 173 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 65-79; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988 ). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043 ). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612 ). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846 ). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988 ). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Amaoka, Kunio | Collaborators

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau , 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185 )

  Least Concern (LC)  

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
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Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
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Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
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Gill area
Otoliths
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Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | OsteoBase( skull , spine ) | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 (based on 658 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00691 - 0.00872), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.2   ±0.50 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000). Prior r = 0.39, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.94, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 4 M, 15 K, 42 tgen, 3 tmax, 26 Fec records Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Capuli, Estelita Emily Fish Forum
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Updated: 2018-09-23 00:54:37 gmt
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