Sydney, NSW (33º53´S), off Gabo Island, VIC (37º34´S) and TAS; temperate, southern circumglobal.
Tasmania Province (10), Southeast Transition (11), Central Eastern Province (12), Norfolk Island Province (21), Southeast Shelf Transition (37), Central Eastern Shelf Province (38), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39)
Continental shelf, continental slope, inshore, marine, rock reef, soft bottom.
Eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa (Ref.
), including the Mediterranean, Canary Islands, Madeira, Cape Verde, and Tristan da Cunha. Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada and Gulf of Maine to North Carolina, USA (Ref.
). Recorded from Uruguay to Argentina (Ref.
). Western Indian Ocean: St. Paul and Amsterdam islands (Ref.
). Southwest Pacific: New Zealand (Ref.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
range ? - 90 cm
Max length : 210 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. published weight: 100.0 kg (Ref.
(total): 10 - 12;
: 8 - 10. Bluish grey above, paler below with a silvery sheen; fins blackish brown (Ref.
). Juveniles have black blotches on head and body (Ref.
). Body tall, compressed. Big mouth with big head and a rough bony ridge across upper part of the gill cover (Ref.
Adults prefer to inhabit caves and shipwrecks (Ref.
). Juveniles congregate below floating objects (Ref.
). Usually solitary. Feed on large crustaceans, cephalopods and benthic fishes (Ref.
). Spawn in the summer (Ref.
). Are primary gonochorists (Ref.
). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref.
). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 6633.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 5.2 - 19, mean 9.4 (based on 672 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00963 - 0.01804), b=3.00 (2.91 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.1 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.05-0.08; tmax=76; tm=9-10 yrs estimated from VBGF; Fec=3 million).
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
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