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Populus grandidentata Michx.
BIGTOOTH ASPEN
Life   Plantae   Dicotyledoneae   Salicaceae   Populus

Populus grandidentata, whole tree or vine - general
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus grandidentata, whole tree or vine - general

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Populus grandidentata, bark - of a large tree
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus grandidentata, bark - of a large tree
Populus grandidentata, leaf - showing orientation on twig
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus grandidentata, leaf - showing orientation on twig

Populus grandidentata, leaf - whole upper surface
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus grandidentata, leaf - whole upper surface
Populus grandidentata, twig - orientation of petioles
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus grandidentata, twig - orientation of petioles

Populus grandidentata, leaf - unspecified
© Copyright Steve Baskauf, 2002-2011 · 4
Populus grandidentata, leaf - unspecified

Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Aphididae  Aphis ( @ CSUC_TCN (1); NCSU_ENT (2)

Chaitophorus neglectus @ CSUC_TCN (1); NCSU_ENT (7)

Chaitophorus populicola @ AMNH_PBI (1); NCSU_ENT (21)

Chaitophorus populifolii @ NCSU_ENT (4)

Chaitophorus stevensis @ NCSU_ENT (10)

Chaitophorus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Mordwilkoja vagabunda @ NCSU (2)

Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (9)

Pterocomma populifoliae @ NCSU (4)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Botryosphaeria ribis @ BPI (2)

Diplodia populina @ BPI (1)

Dothiorella @ BPI (1)
Bulgariaceae  Holwaya leptosperma @ BPI (1)
Cicadellidae  Idiocerus ( @ AMNH_IZC (2)

Kybos copula @ III (1)
Clavariaceae  Clavaria pyxidata @ BPI (1)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora polyporoidea @ BPI (1)
Corticiaceae  Corticium confluens @ BPI (4)

Corticium evolvens @ BPI (1)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (1)

Corticium laeve @ BPI (1)

Corticium mutatum @ BPI (1)

Corticium polygonium @ BPI (1)

Corticium polyporoideum @ BPI (1)

Corticium scutellare @ BPI (2)
Cortinariaceae  Crepidotus fulvotomentosus @ BPI (1)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium epiphyllum @ BPI (1)

Cladosporium herbarum @ BPI (1)

Cladosporium subsessile @ BPI (5)
Dermateaceae  Chlorosplenium aeruginascens @ BPI (1)

Cylindrosporium @ BPI (1)

Dermea @ BPI (1)

Gloeosporium populinum @ BPI (2)

Haglundia perelegans @ BPI (1)

Marssonina brunnea @ BPI (2)

Marssonina castagnei @ BPI (5)

Marssonina populi @ BPI (4)

Marssonina rhabdospora @ BPI (22)

Pezicula eximia @ BPI (1)

Pezicula ocellata @ BPI (1)

Trochila populorum @ BPI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Cryptosphaeria populina @ BPI (5)

Diatrype stigma @ BPI (2)
Entolomataceae  Claudopus nidulans @ BPI (1)
Erysiphaceae  Uncinula salicis @ BPI (4)
Exidiaceae  Exidia glandulosa @ BPI (3)

Exidia recisa @ BPI (1)
Fenestellaceae  Fenestella vestita @ BPI (2)
Fomitopsidaceae  Daedalea confragosa @ BPI (4)

Daedalea unicolor @ BPI (1)
Gnomoniaceae  Plagiostoma populi @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Cenangium populneum @ BPI (12)

Cenangium singulare @ BPI (1)

Chlorociboria aeruginascens @ BPI (7)

Chlorociboria aeruginosa @ BPI (2)

Tympanis spermatiospora @ BPI (4)
Helvellaceae  Helvella infula @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum combinans @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (1)

Polystictus pargamenus @ BPI (2)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterographium mori @ BPI (3)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abietis-canadensis @ BPI (89)

Melampsora medusae @ BPI (7)

Melampsora populina @ BPI (8)

Melampsora tremulae @ BPI (1)

Melampsora @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Merulius tremellosus @ BPI (1)

Phlebia cinnabarina @ BPI (1)

Phlebia fuscozonate @ BPI (1)

Phlebia pileata @ BPI (2)

Phlebia strigosozonata @ BPI (18)
Miridae  Agnocoris rubicundus @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Pilophorus perplexus @ AMNH_PBI (3)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Heterosporium epiphyllum @ BPI (1)

Mycosphaerella orbicularis @ BPI (1)
Nectriaceae  Cylindrocarpon heteronema @ BPI (1)

Fusarium @ BPI (1)

Nectria cinnabarina @ BPI (1)

Nectria coccinea @ BPI (1)

Nectria ditissima @ BPI (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (3)

Nectria galligena @ BPI (7)

Tubercularia pezizoidea @ BPI (1)
Odontasteridae  Asterodon ferruginosus @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora affinis @ BPI (1)

Peniophora allescheri @ BPI (6)

Peniophora carnosa @ BPI (1)

Peniophora mutata @ BPI (1)

Peniophora rufa @ BPI (1)
Phacidiaceae  Ceuthospora populi @ BPI (2)
Phanerochaetaceae  Phanerochaete affinis @ BPI (1)

Phanerochaete carnosa @ BPI (1)
Pleurotaceae  Pleurotus applicatus @ BPI (1)

Pleurotus ostreatus @ BPI (2)
Polyporaceae  Favolus alveolarius @ BPI (2)

Fomes applanatus @ BPI (4)

Fomes fomentarius @ BPI (4)

Fomes igniarius @ BPI (10)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (5)

Lenzites trabea @ BPI (2)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (24)

Polyporus arcularius @ BPI (1)

Polyporus biformis @ BPI (4)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (4)

Polyporus cuticularis @ BPI (3)

Polyporus dichrous @ BPI (1)

Polyporus dryophilus @ BPI (8)

Polyporus fumosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus pargamenus @ BPI (12)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (1)

Polyporus pubescens @ BPI (4)

Polyporus resinosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus subchartaceus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus velutinus @ BPI (5)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (8)

Poria ambigua @ BPI (2)

Poria aneirina @ BPI (3)

Poria eupora @ BPI (2)

Poria ferrea @ BPI (1)

Poria ferruginosa @ BPI (3)

Poria mollis @ BPI (1)

Poria nitida @ BPI (1)

Poria punctata @ BPI (1)

Poria subacida @ BPI (3)

Trametes hispida @ BPI (1)

Trametes malicola @ BPI (1)

Trametes peckii @ BPI (1)

Trametes serialis @ BPI (1)

Trametes suaveolens @ BPI (2)

Trametes trogii @ BPI (1)
Rhytismataceae  Propolis faginea @ BPI (1)

Propolis versicolor @ BPI (1)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (1)
Sclerotiniaceae  Ciborinia bifrons @ BPI (3)

Encoelia fascicularis @ BPI (5)

Sclerotinia bifrons @ BPI (1)
Sebacinaceae  Sebacina molybdea @ BPI (2)
Sistotremataceae  Trechispora mollusca @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia fimbriata @ BPI (1)

Odontia incrustans @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Stereum complicatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum fasciatum @ BPI (1)

Stereum murrayi @ BPI (2)

Stereum purpureum @ BPI (4)

Stereum rufum @ BPI (27)

Stereum versiforme @ BPI (1)
Strophariaceae  Pholiota adiposa @ BPI (2)
Taphrinaceae  Taphrina aurea @ BPI (2)

Taphrina johansonii @ BPI (3)

Taphrina rhizophora @ BPI (1)
Tricholomataceae  Helotium citrinum @ BPI (4)

Helotium epiphyllum @ BPI (1)
Tubeufiaceae  Helicoma muelleri @ BPI (1)
Typhulaceae  Sclerotium bifrons @ BPI (2)
Ulvaceae  Solenia ochracea @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora chrysosperma @ BPI (9)

Cytospora @ BPI (4)

Valsa nivea @ BPI (9)

Valsa sordida @ BPI (1)

Valsa @ BPI (1)
Venturiaceae  Fusicladium radiosum @ BPI (21)
Xylariaceae  Daldinia concentrica @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon fragiforme @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon howeianum @ BPI (1)

Hypoxylon mammatum @ BPI (4)

Hypoxylon pruinatum @ BPI (1)

Rosellinia aquila @ BPI (1)
_  Botryodiplodia penzigii @ BPI (2)

Cryptochaete rufa @ BPI (1)

Hirneolina kmetii @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus fumosus @ BPI (3)

Hypochnus isabellinus @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus pallidofulvus @ BPI (1)

Karschia lignyota @ BPI (1)

Myxormia populina @ BPI (2)

Napicladium tremulae @ BPI (2)

Pachybasium @ BPI (1)

Pellicularia pruinata @ BPI (1)

Troposporella fumosa @ BPI (1)

Uredo medusae @ BPI (4)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 7 | Salicaceae | Populus

7. Populus grandidentata Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 243. 1803.

Bigtooth aspen, grand tremble

Populus tremula Linnaeus subsp. grandidentata (Michaux) Á. Löve & D. Löve

Plants to 35 m, 14 dm diam.; strongly heterophyllous. Bark dark grayish brown, furrowed only basally on large trees, (light gray and smooth otherwise). Branchlets reddish brown, becoming reddish gray by third year, round, 1.3-2.5 (-5) mm diam., moderately coarse, thinly tomentose to glabrate. Winter buds reddish, proximally pubescent, (dull), not evidently resinous; terminal buds 2.5-7 (-10) mm, (glabrous or pubescent); flowering buds separated on branchlets or clustered distally, 6-9(-13) mm. Leaves : petiole distally flattened at right angle to plane of blade, 1.5-6(-11) cm, 1/2-3/4 blade length; blade ovate, (2-)4-10(-27.5) × (2-)3-8(-28.5) cm, w/l = 3/4, base broadly cuneate to subcordate, basilaminar glands (1 or) 2(-4), cup-shaped, margins not translucent, not ciliate, apex acute, abaxial surface greenish-white, resin stains absent, (glaucous), densely silky, (hairs white, relatively long, appressed) at emergence, soon becoming glabrate, adaxial bright dark green, glabrous; preformed blade margins coarsely serrate midblade, teeth (1-)5-12 (-16) on each side (graded, sharp), sinuses 0.3-4.5(-6) mm deep; neoformed blade margins finely crenate-serrate throughout, teeth (5-)15-50(-138) on each side (rounded), sinuses 0.8-1.5(-2.5) mm deep. Catkins densely (30-)50-150(-175)-flowered, (4-)6-10(-14 in fruit) cm; floral bract apex deeply cut, ciliate. Pedicels 0.2-1.5(-2 in fruit) mm. Flowers: discs narrowly cup-shaped, obviously oblique, shallowly toothed, 1-2 mm diam.; stamens 6-12; anthers truncate; ovary 2-carpelled; stigmas 2, filiform, erect. Capsules narrowly ovoid, 2-5(-6) mm, glabrous, 2-valved. Seeds (3-)6-8(-9) per placenta. 2 n = 38.

Flowering Mar-May; fruiting May-Jun. Dry to moist, open to closed upland woodlands and forests; 0-1000 m; Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Conn., Del., D.C., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Populus grandidentata is a successional species that regenerates after fires by suckering from living rootstocks. The exclusively neoformed leaves on such suckers are much larger than those found on mature trees, are conspicuously pubescent abaxially, and are similar enough to preformed and neoformed leaves of P. heterophylla that they are responsible for incorrect published reports of the latter in upland sites. Once suckers reach their second or third year and begin to branch, they start to bear at least some preformed leaves that clearly identify them as Bigtooth aspen. As far as is known, P. grandidentata and P. heterophylla never grow together at a single site.

Bigtooth aspen hybridizes sporadically with the other native aspen, Populus tremuloides , to form P. × smithii B. Boivin (synonym P. × barnesii W. H. Wagner) throughout their large region of sympatry (Frère Marie-Victorin 1930; S. S. Pauley 1956; B. V. Barnes 1961; W. H. Wagner Jr. 1970). Leaves of the hybrids have more numerous, smaller, more rounded teeth than those of P. grandidentata. They may be found as far west as Niobrara River valley, Nebraska, 350 km west of the nearest present station of P. grandidentata .

The related Eurasian white poplar, Populus alba Linnaeus, is commonly and widely planted throughout temperate North America as a pistillate clone with a spreading crown or, less often, as a columnar staminate clone, the Bolleana poplar ('Pyramidalis'), both of which can persist after cultivation and even spread to a limited extent by root sprouts in old garden sites, roadsides, waste places, hedgerows, and edges of woods. This species differs from P. grandidentata (and all other species of the genus) in having neoformed leaf blades palmately 5-lobed and, along with the petioles, densely white-tomentose abaxially. Unlike all native species of Populus, white poplar has floral bract apices only shallowly cut; these are ciliate like those of native aspens. Populus alba hybridizes commonly with both P. grandidentata , forming P. ×rouleauiana B. Boivin, and P. tremuloides , forming P. × heimburgeri B. Boivin, in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States; the hybrids are progressively uncommon southward (E. L. Little Jr. et al. 1957; T. A. Spies and B. V. Barnes 1982). Although their leaves are tomentose abaxially, they differ from P. alba in not having the deeply 5-lobed neoformed leaves. Those of P. × heimburgeri are shallowly 3-lobed, with apical lobes much larger than lateral ones, and those of P. × rouleauiana are irregularly and compoundly toothed. With their prominently white-tomentose leaves abaxially, both hybrids are often misidentified as white poplar and are the basis for published reports of naturalized P. alba in sites away from present or former cultivation.

The gray poplar, Populus × canescens (Aiton) Smith, a natural hybrid between P. alba and the Eurasian aspen, P. tremula Linnaeus, is common and variable in Europe but usually represented by a single pistillate clone in North America. It is widely cultivated, persisting and spreading by root sprouts at former homesites, in waste places, and edges of woods. It is usually less frequent than P. alba , but mostly replaces white poplar in southeastern United States, where it is more widely established under semi-natural conditions. Neoformed leaves have a thin, grayish tomentum abaxially and are irregularly and coarsely toothed rather than 5-lobed, like those of P. alba. Populus ×tomentosa Carrière, from China, is a similar hybrid white poplar with larger leaves and two prominent, cup-shaped basilaminar glands that is rarely planted in southeastern United States in the form of a pistillate clone. It is derived from hybridization between P. alba and a Chinese aspen, P. adenopoda Maximowicz.

Populus alba is similar to P. ×canescens in having resinous winter buds, branchlets and terminal buds that are densely to sparsely tomentose, leaf blade surfaces densely tomentose abaxially when young, retaining their dense tomentum on at least some intervein regions, and usually 5-8(-10) cm. Flowers are similar with discs narrowly cup-shaped, obviously oblique, catkins with floral bracts that are ciliate and apices shallowly cut, 6-12 stamens, the 2 stigmas filiform, and ovaries narrowly ovoid to lanceoloid. Capsules are similar in that they are usually 2-valved, lanceoloid or narrowly ovoid, and 2-7(-9) mm, with seeds (1 or) 2 (or 3) per placenta. The two taxa differ by P. alba having white hairs, neoformed blade margins deeply to shallowly (3 or) 5-lobed, catkin floral bracts densely tomentose, and (1 or) 2 (or 3) seeds per placenta; P. ×canescens has grayish, tannish, or dirty white (tomentose) hairs, neoformed blade margins irregularly toothed, and (3-) 5-8 (or 9) seeds per placenta.

Updated: 2024-07-13 03:37:49 gmt
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