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Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758)
BLUE SHARK
Blue Whaler; Blue Whaler Shark; Blue Whalers; Great Blue; Great Blue Shark; Carcharhinus glaucus Linnaeus, 1758; Carcharhinus mackiei Phillipps, 1935; Carcharias glaucus Linnaeus, 1758; Galeus glaucus Linnaeus, 1758; Glyphis glauca Linnaeus, 1758; Glyphis mackiei Phillipps, 1935; Prionodon glaucus Linnaeus, 1758; Squalus glaucus Linnaeus, 1758; Prionace glaucum Linnaeus, 1758; Prionace mackiei Phillipps, 1935

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Prionace

Prionace glauca
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Prionace glauca

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Prionace glauca
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Prionace glauca
Prionace glauca
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Prionace glauca

Prionace glauca
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Prionace glauca
español

Overview
Main identification features Very elongate and fusiform; snout long and narrowly rounded; no spiracles; eyes with nictitating membrane; teeth serrated, wide, long triangular and curved, center tooth of top jaw very large; 5 short gill slits, last 2 over pectoral base; origin of first dorsal well behind pectoral fins; pectorals very long, narrow, slightly curved; tail base with small keel; no crest between dorsal fins.

Back dark blue, flanks intense blue; belly white; tip of pectoral and anal dark.

Size: 480 cm.

Habitat: oceanic, epipelagic.

Depth: 0-350 m.

Southern California to the lower 2/3 of the Gulf of California and to Peru, and probably all the oceanic islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 350 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: bony fishes; octopus/squid/cuttlefish; sharks/rays; Pelagic crustacea; sea snakes/mammals/turtles/birds.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=66; Southern limit=-55; Western limit=-165; Eastern limit=-70; Latitudinal range=121; Longitudinal range=95.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Near threatened; Listed.
Length Max: 480 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; California + Peruvian provinces, primarily; Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Surface; Surface; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Béarez, P., 1996., Lista de los Peces Marinos del Ecuador Continental., Revista de Biologia Tropical, 44:731-741.
  • Castro-Aguirre, J.L. and Balart, E.F., 2002., La ictiofauna de las islas Revillagigedos y sus relaciones zoogeograficas, con comentarios acerca de su origen y evolucion. En: Lozano-Vilano, M. L. (Ed.). Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas., Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León:153-170.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1984., Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Species Catalogue., FAO Fish. Synop. No 125, 4(2):251-655.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versión 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .  Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservación Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., Pérez-España, H., Chávez-Ramos, H., 1996., Systematics list of the fishes from Cerralvo island, Baja California Sur, Mexico., Ciencias Marinas, 22:295-311.
  • Galván-Magaña, F., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, F., Abitia-Cárdenas, L.A., Rodríguez-Romero, J., 2000., The distribution and affinities of the shore fishes of the Baja California Sur lagoons. In Aquatic Ecosystems of Mexico: Status and Scope. Eds. M. Manuwar, S.G. Lawrence, I.F. Manuwar & D.F. Malley. Ecovision World Monograph Series., Backhuys Publishers:383-398.
  • Hildebrand, S.F., 1946., A descriptive catalog of the shore fishes of Peru., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 189:1-530.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., Béarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Linnaeus, C., 1758., Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae., Systema Nat. ed. 10, 1:1-824.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Osburn , R. C. and Nichols, J. T., 1916., Shore Fishes Collected by the 'Albatross' Expedition in Lower California with Descriptions of New Species., Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 35:139-181.
  • Ramírez Rodríguez, M., 1997., Producción pesquera en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:273-282.
  • Van der Heiden , A. M. and Findley, L. T., 1988., Lista de los peces marinos del sur de Sinaloa, México., Anales del Centro de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia de la Universidad Autonoma Nacional de Mexico, 15:209-224.
  • Villavicencio Garayzar , C. J. , Mariano Meléndez , E. and Downton Hoffmann, C., 1997., Tiburones capturados comercialmente en la Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S.. En Urbán Ramírez, J. y M. Ramírez Rodríguez (Eds.). La Bahía de La Paz investigación y conservación., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur:201-236.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Prionace-glauca.html ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Prionace-glauca.html
Prionace glauca, Blue shark : fisheries, gamefish

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Prionace glauca (Linnaeus , 1758)

Blue shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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Prionace glauca   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Prionace: Derived from Greek, prio, prion, saw (Ref. 45335 ) ;   glauca: Named comes from the Latin 'glauca' meaning blue (Ref. 6885 ) .  More on author: Linnaeus .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 1 - 1000 m (Ref. 89422 ), usually 1 - 220 m (Ref. 55193 ).   Subtropical; 7°C - 21°C (Ref. 244 ); 71°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Circumglobal in temperate and tropical waters. Western Atlantic: Newfoundland, Canada to Argentina. Central Atlantic. Eastern Atlantic: Norway to South Africa, including the Mediterranean. Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Indonesia, Japan, Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: Gulf of Alaska to Chile. Probably the widest ranging chondrichthyian. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 206.2 , range 170 - 221 cm
Max length : 400 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35388 ); common length : 335 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217 ); max. published weight: 205.9 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 27347 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A slim, graceful blue shark with a long, conical snout, large eyes, and curved triangular upper teeth with saw edges; pectorals long and narrow; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578 ). Dark blue dorsally, bright blue on the sides, white ventrally (Ref. 5578 ). Tips of pectoral fins and anal fin dusky (Ref. 9997 ). The first case of diprosopus tetrophthalmus (cranofacial duplication) in a foetus of this species was reported from South Atlantic (Ref. 119190 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Oceanic, but may be found close inshore where the continental shelf is narrow (Ref. 6871 , 58302 ). Usually found to at least 150 m (Ref. 26938 ). Reported from estuaries (Ref. 26340 ). Epipelagic, occasionally occurs in littoral areas (Ref. 58302 ). Feeds on fishes (herring, silver hake, white hake, red hake, cod, haddock, pollock, mackerel, butterfish, sea raven and flounders (Ref. 5951 )), small sharks, squids, pelagic red crabs, cetacean carrion, occasional sea birds and garbage (Ref. 5578 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Sexual dimorphism occurs in skin thickness of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562 ). May travel considerable distances (one specimen tagged in New Zealand was recaptured 1,200 km off the coast of Chile) (Ref. 26346 ). Potentially dangerous to humans (Ref. 6871 , 13513 ). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, and frozen; meat utilized for consumption, hides for leather and fins for soup (Ref. 9987 ). Sexually mature at 250 cm long and 4-5 years old. The female gives birth up to 80 young measuring 40 cm long, gestation lasts almost a year (Ref. 35388 ). Produces from 4 to 135 young a litter (Ref. 26938 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). Viviparous (Ref. 26281 ), placental (Ref. 50449 ); 4-63 young in a litter (Ref. 9997 ); 4-135 (usually 15-30) pups (Ref.58048), about 35-44 cm at birth. Gestation period ranges from 9 to 12 months (Ref. 244 ). Sexual dimorphism is evident in skin thickness of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562 ). Females have thicker skin layer than males of the same size (Ref. 49562 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690 )




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(fisheries: production , species profile ; publication : search ) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 5.9 - 25.2, mean 14.8 (based on 1945 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00366 - 0.00545), b=3.11 (3.06 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.4   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies. Generation time: 8.5 (6.9 - 9.9) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 23 growth studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (rm=0.031; K=0.16; tm=6; tmax=20; Fec=4-135). Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 6 stock assessments. Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Very high vulnerability (77 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen Fish Forum
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