Dorsal fin with XIII spines and 10-11 soft rays; anal fin with III spines and 6-7 soft rays. Scales cycloid. Variable in color, usually in relation to habitat. Coastal species generally darker, sometimes almost black in estuaries. Often with large tentacles above eyes.
Inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs from turbid inshore areas to depths of 50 m. Hides in unexposed places at daytime often with head down and practically immobile. Pelagic juveniles expatriate over great distances and the reason for their broad geographica
Indo-Pacific: western Australia and Malaysia to the Marquesan Islands and Oeno (Pitcairn group) and Taiwan; north to southern Japan and southern Korea; south to Lord Howe, Kermadec, and Austral Islands; throughout Micronesia. Also known from Inhaca Island
Not commercial market food species, edible, palatable, a popular table fish. Common aquarium species.
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Pacific Ocean: Cocos-Keeling Islands and Western Australia (Ref.
) in the eastern Indian Ocean to the Marquesas and Oeno (Pitcairn group), north to southern Japan and southern Korea, south to Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand, and the Austral Islands. Replaced by the very similar
from the Red Sea to Sumatra.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 16 - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref.
Inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs from turbid inshore areas to depths of 50 m. Often solitary, they hide in unexposed places at daytime often with head down and practically immobile. Pelagic juveniles expatriate over great distances and the reason for their broad geographical range (Ref.
). Hunt small fishes, shrimps, and crabs at night, using its widespread pectorals trapping prey into a corner, stunning it and then swallowing it in one sweep. Dorsal spines are venomous; the sting can be treated by heating the afflicted part and application of corticoids (Ref.
). A popular table fish.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 22.4 - 29, mean 27.9 (based on 756 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00417 - 0.01737), b=3.11 (2.92 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 4.4 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Luna, Susan M.
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