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Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Bonaparte, 1832)
PELAGIC STINGRAY
Guiler's Stingray; Guilers Stingray; Violet Stingray; Dasyatis violacea Bonaparte, 1832; Dasybatus violaceus Bonaparte, 1832; Dasyatis guileri Last, 1979; Trygon violacea Bonaparte, 1832

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Dasyatidae   Pteroplatytrygon

Pteroplatytrygon violacea
www.fao.org Copyright Michel Lamboeuf · 0
Pteroplatytrygon violacea

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Pteroplatytrygon violacea
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
© Copyright Photographer/SFTEP, 2002 · 0
Pteroplatytrygon violacea
espa˝ol

Overview
Main identification features Disc broad, wedge-shaped, about as wide as long, front broadly convex, sides straight; snout relatively long (8-15% of disc width); mouth slightly arched, floor of mouth with cross row of 10-12 fleshy papillae, teeth with quadrangular bases, low sharp tips; tail longer than disc width, with thick base, tapering to a slender point, with one long large serrated venomous spine; tail without a dorsal ridge, with a ventral fleshy ridge from tail origin to the base of the spine.

Upper surface dark purple to green-blue; lower surface paler, greyish purple to greenish blue.

Size: 163 cm long, 80 cm disc width.

Habitat: pelagic, continental shelf and open ocean, occasionally nearshore.

Depth: 0-250 m.

Probably circumtropical; southern California to Peru , except the Gulf of California, all the oceanic islands.


Attributes
Abundance: Common.
Cites: Not listed.
Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California); Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap); Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos); Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo); South Temperate (Peruvian Province ).
Depth Range Max: 250 m.
Depth Range Min: 0 m.
Diet: pelagic jellyfish/ctenophores; bony fishes; Pelagic crustacea; octopus/squid/cuttlefish.
Eastern Pacific Range: Northern limit=33; Southern limit=-9; Western limit=-118; Eastern limit=-78; Latitudinal range=42; Longitudinal range=40.
Egg Type: Live birth; No pelagic larva.
Feeding Group: Carnivore.
FishBase Habitat: Pelagic.
Global Endemism: Circumtropical ( Indian + Pacific + Atlantic Oceans); East Pacific + Atlantic (East +/or West); Transisthmian (East Pacific + Atlantic of Central America); East Pacific + all Atlantic (East+West); All Pacific (West + Central + East); TEP non-endemic; "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific); All species.
Habitat: Water column.
Inshore Offshore: Offshore; Offshore Only.
IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed.
Length Max: 163 cm.
Regional Endemism: Island (s); Continent; Continent + Island (s); Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic; Eastern Pacific non-endemic; All species.
Residency: Resident.
Salinity: Marine; Marine Only.
Water Column Position: Mid Water; Near Bottom; Water column only;


Names
Scientific source:

Links to other sites

References
  • Bonaparte, C. L., 1832., Iconografia delle fauna italica per le quattro classi degli animali vertebrati. Tomo III. Pesci. Roma. [Issued in puntate, without pagination; total of 556 pp., 78 pls. Reorganized in book form without pagination but with table of contents.]., Iconografia, v. 3, (Fasc. 1):1-6.
  • Compagno, L.J.V., 1999., Checklist of living elasmobranchs. In Hamlett W.C. (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes., The John Hopkins University Press:471-498.
  • Eschmeyer , W. N. , Herald , E. S. and Hamman, H., 1983., A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America from the Gulf of Alaska to Baja California. Peterson Field Guide Ser. 28., Houghton Mifflin:336pp.
  • Findley, L.T., Hendrickx, M.E., Brusca, R.C., van der Heiden, A.M., Hastings, P.A., Torre, J., 2003., Diversidad de la Macrofauna Marina del Golfo de California, Mexico., CD-ROM versiˇn 1.0. Projecto de la Macrofauna del Golfo .á Derechos reservados de los autores y Conservaciˇn Internacional.
  • Fischer , W. , Krup , F. , Schneider , W. , Sommer , C. , Carpenter , K. E. and Niem, V. H., 1995., Guia FAO para la Identificacion de Especies de para los fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. Volumen II. Vertebrados - Parte 1., FAO2:647-1200.
  • Jimenez-Prado, P., BÚarez, P., 2004., Peces marinos del Ecuador continental / Marine fishes of continental Ecuador., SIMBIOE/NAZCA/IFEA tomo 1 y 2.
  • Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005., es of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Artic Ocena species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border., U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, 288pp.
  • Smith , M. M. and Heemstra, P., 1986., Smith's Sea Fishes. Johannesburg: Macmillan South Africa. 1047 pp., Macmillan South Africa:1047pp.

Acknowledgements

I thank Ashley MacDonald and John Pickering, University of Georgia, for technical support in building this page.


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Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
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Following modified from FishBase
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http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Pteroplatytrygon&speciesname=violacea ---> https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Pteroplatytrygon&speciesname=violacea
https://www.fishbase.se/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Pteroplatytrygon&speciesname=violacea ---> https://www.fishbase.se/summary/Pteroplatytrygon-violacea.html
Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Pelagic stingray

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Pteroplatytrygon violacea ( Bonaparte , 1832 )

Pelagic stingray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Pteroplatytrygon violacea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Pteroplatytrygon violacea (Pelagic stingray) Pteroplatytrygon violacea
Male picture by Mollet, H.F.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes( genus , species ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Dasyatinae
Etymology: Pteroplatytrygon: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek,platys = flat + Greek, trygon = a sting ray (Ref. 45335 ) ;   violacea: From the Latin 'viola' meaning violet.   More on author: Bonaparte .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 1 - 381 m (Ref. 58302 ), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 55209 ).   Subtropical; 52°N - 50°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55209 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Probably cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical seas. Eastern Atlantic: southeastern coasts of the Mediterranean and off Sicily. Reported from Cape Verde (Ref. 34514 ). Eastern Pacific: California (USA), Baja California (Mexico), and the Galapagos Islands Reported off Vancouver (Ref. 11980 ) and from Chile (Ref. 9068 ). Western Atlantic (Ref. 7251 ). There are 4 records from southern Africa (Ref. 11228 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 40 - 50 cm
Max length : 96.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 48844 ); common length : 80.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9254 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

A thick, dark stingray with a broadly rounded snout and an angular pectoral disc; tail less than twice body length with a long lower caudal finfold ending far in front of tail tip, but with no upper finfold; disc without thorns; usually 1 extremely long sting on tail; eyes do not protrude (Ref. 5578 ). Uniformly violet, purple, or dark blue-green dorsally and ventrally (Ref. 3263 ). No prominent markings (Ref. 3263 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in open, tropical and warm temperate waters usually in the first 100 m. Possibly the only totally pelagic member of the family (Ref. 6871 ). Feeds on coelenterates (including medusae), squid, decapod crustaceans, and fish. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Venomous spine on tail. Common catch of the pelagic tuna (and shark) longline and gillnet fisheries (drift, Ref. 75025 ) operating throughout the region (Ref. 58048 ); also by purse-seine and bottom trawls (Ref. 75025 ). Utilized for its meat and sometimes cartilage (Ref.58048). Total length 110 TL (80 cm WD) (Ref. 9254 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). With 2 (Ref.58048) to 9 young born at 15-25 cm WD (Ref. 26346 ); after a gestation period of 4 months (Ref.58048).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 9254 )




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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 12 - 28.6, mean 24.8 °C (based on 5148 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00282 - 0.01623), b=3.07 (2.87 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.4   ±0.54 se; based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.18 (captivity); Fec=1-9 (could probably have 2 litters per year)). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) . Nutrients (Ref. 124155 ):  Calcium = 32.3 [4.4, 114.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.39 [0.39, 3.65] mg/100g ; Protein = 22.4 [19.7, 25.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.397 [0.133, 0.976] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.7 [4.9, 47.7] ╬╝g/100g ; VitaminA = 17.8 [6.8, 47.2] ╬╝g/100g ; Zinc = 0.556 [0.266, 1.149] mg/100g (wet weight);

Entered by Froese, Rainer Modified by Capuli, Estelita Emily Fish Forum
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