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Rhinoptera javanica Müller, &. Henle, 1841
Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Myliobatidae   Rhinoptera

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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Myliobatiformes  
 Family Myliobatidae  
 Genus Rhinoptera  
  Rhinoptera javanica    Müller & Henle, 1841 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Rhinopthera javanica   details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); Marine Fishes & Fisheries of Malaysia and Neighbouring Countries
Character: Disc broad. Head prominent. Rostral fins detached from the pectorals, forming a produced, free and flexible lobe in front of each orbit, not produced in front of the middle of the head. Snout width subequal with interorbital, with shallow median notch. Eyes round, pupil erect. Spiracles large, close behind eye. Teeth seven rows in each jaw, median row more than 3 times as wide as long, cutermost row of teeth smallest, wide as long. Gill openings moderate, equidistant, last smallest. One dorsal fin, its origin above the ends of the ventral bases, and a serrated spine immediately behind dorsal. Ventrals rather long, narrow, end in obtuse inner lobe. Tail long, slender, whiplike. Specimen in formalin grey above, whitish below. 
Habitat: Found in bays, estuaries, and near coral reefs, over sand and mud bottoms. Large schools with up to 500 individuals have been reported. Feeds on clams, oysters and crustaceans. Lives to over 2 years in captivity. Ovoviviparous. Edible. 
Distribution: India, Ceylon, East Indies, China, Java, Taiwan. 
Name Code: 383170
  IUCN Red List:VU  A2d+3cd+4cd      Marine     
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Rhinoptera javanica Müller & Henle , 1841

Flapnose ray Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Rhinoptera javanica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Rhinoptera javanica (Flapnose ray) Rhinoptera javanica
Picture by FAO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

() > Rhinopristiformes (Shovelnose rays) > Rhinopteridae (Cownose rays)
Etymology: Rhinoptera: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek,pteron = fin, wing (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Müller & Henle .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated.   Tropical; 30°N - 15°S, 55°E - 135°E (Ref. 114953 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Oman to the Philippines; north to Ryukyu Is.; south to eastern Indonesia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 165 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953 ); max. published weight: 4.5 kg (Ref. 3965 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Double-lobed snout and indented forehead; jaws usually with 7 rows of plate-like teeth; no caudal fin (Ref. 5578 ). Brown above, white below (Ref. 5578 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in bays, estuaries, and near coral reefs (Ref. 12951 ), over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 9710 ). Usually solitary or in small aggregations (Ref. 114953 ). However, large schools with up to 500 individuals have been reported (Ref. 12951 ). Feeds on clams, oysters and crustaceans (Ref. 12951 ). Lives to over 2 years in captivity (Ref. 12951 ). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Edible (Ref. 30573 ). Caught mainly by gill net fisheries (Ref. 114953 ), occasionally by bottom trawl, demersal inshore gillnet and tangle net fisheries. Utilized for its meat (Ref. 58048 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Males court by nipping the female's dorsum. Mating pair orient in a venter to venter position, and the male inserts one or both claspers. The pair usually rests on the substrate, with the female on top of the male. Mating lasts about 30 seconds (Ref. 12951 ) to 1 minute (Ref. 49562 ). Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449 ). Size at birth ~60 cm WD. One large pregnant female (~130 cm WD) contained a single late-term embryo 61 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor , 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Vulnerable (VU)  (A2d+3cd+4cd); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 12484 )

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 24.2 - 29.2, mean 28.4 (based on 3123 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00632 - 0.01902), b=2.94 (2.78 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.3   ±0.37 se; Based on food items. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1-2). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Sa-a, Pascualita Modified by Capuli, Estelita Emily Fish Forum
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