TaiBIF | Search | All Living Things

Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837)
Fish Shark; Little Blue Shark; Longmans Dogshark; White-eye Shark; Protozygaena longmani Ogilby, 1912; Rhizoprionodon crenidens Klunzinger, 1880; Scoliodon palasorrah Cuvier, 1829; Carcharias crenidens Klunzinger, 1880; Scoliodon longmani Ogilby, 1912; Carcharias acutus Rüppell, 1837

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Carcharhinidae   Rhizoprionodon

Click on map for details about points.

go to Discover Life's Facebook group

Following modified from Australian Faunal Directory
   Top | See original

http://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e017888d-fc35-43d3-969d-ba7c5d9eb102 ---> https://biodiversity.org.au/afd/taxa/e017888d-fc35-43d3-969d-ba7c5d9eb102
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts

Australian Biological Resources Study

Australian Faunal Directory

You are here:  Environment home » Biodiversity » ABRS » AFD » ANIMALIA (Kingdom) » CHORDATA (Phylum) » VERTEBRATA (Subphylum) » GNATHOSTOMATA (Higher Taxon) » PISCES (Higher Taxon) » CHONDRICHTHYES (Class) » ELASMOBRANCHII (Subclass) » CARCHARHINIFORMES (Order) » CARCHARHINIDAE (Family) » Rhizoprionodon Whitley, 1929 (Genus) » Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837)

Species Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837)


Regional Maps

External Links

CAAB : 37018006 Taxon concept Rhizoprionodon_acutus last modified 2012-08-16 16:34:32.507

Species Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell, 1837)

Milk Shark , Fish Shark, Little Blue Shark, Longmans Dogshark, White-eye Shark


Taxonomic Decision for Synonymy


Generic Combinations


Miscellaneous Literature Names



This species was typically regarded as Scoliodon palasorrah (Cuvier, 1829). However that species was regarded as of unknown identity by Springer (1964). White et al . (2010) also argued that that name was not made available properly.




Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia

Extra Distribution Information

Carnarvon, WA to Moreton Bay, QLD; tropical, east Atlantic Indo-west Pacific.

IBRA and IMCRA regions (map not available)


Timor Transition (1), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27), Central Western Shelf Transition (28), Central Western Shelf Province (29), Central Eastern Shelf Transition (39), Northeast Shelf Province (40), Northeast Shelf Transition (41)

Distribution References

Ecological Descriptors

Continental shelf, inshore, marine, pelagic.

Extra Ecological Information

Inshore to 200 m.


General References

Allen, G.R. 1997. Marine Fishes of Tropical Australia and South-east Asia . Perth : Western Australian Museum 292 pp. 106 pls. [44]

Allen, G.R. & Swainston, R. 1988. The Marine Fishes of North-Western Australia. A field guide for anglers and divers . Perth, WA : Western Australian Museum vi 201 pp., 70 pls. [24]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [525]

Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M. & Fowler, S. 2005. A Field Guide to the Sharks of the World . London : Collins 368 pp. [317]

Compagno, L.J.V. & Niem, V.H. 1998. Family Carcharhinidae. pp. 1312-1360 in Carpenter, K.E. & Niem, V.H. (eds). The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes . Rome : FAO Vol. 2 687-1396 pp. [1354]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [265]

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Collingwood : CSIRO Publishing Australia 2, 550 pp. [281]

McCulloch, A.R. 1929. A check-list of the fishes recorded from Australia. Part I. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 5 : 1–144 [13] (as Rhizoprionodon crenidens )

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [8] (50, as Protozygaenia longmani and 52, as Scoliodon palasorrah )

White, W.T., Last, P.R. & Naylor, G.J.P 2010. Scoliodon macrorhynchos (Bleeker, 1852), a second species of spadenose shark from the Western Pacific (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae). pp. 61-76 in Last, P.R., White, W.T. & Pogonoski, J.J. Descriptions of new sharks and rays from Borneo. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper 32 : 1–165 [61]

Whitley, G.P. 1964. A survey of Australian Ichthyology. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89 (1): 11-127 [33] (70, as Protozygaena longmani, in part, 79)


Common Name References

Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125 . Rome : FAO Vol. 4(2) 251-655 pp. [525] ( Milk Shark )

Grant, E.M. 1975. Guide to Fishes . Brisbane : Queensland Government, Co-ordinator General’s Department 640 pp. [50] (White-eye Shark)

Grant, E.M. 2002. Guide to Fishes . Redcliffe : EM Grant Pty Ltd 880 pp. [57] (Little Blue Shark)

Last, P.R. & Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia . Canberra : CSIRO Australia 513 pp. 84 pls. [265] (Longmans Dogshark)

Munro, I.S.R. 1961. Handbook of Australian fishes. Nos 1–42. Australian Fisheries Newsletter 15–17, 19, 20 : 1-172 [published as separates 1956–1961] [8] (Fish Shark)

Seafood Services Australia 2008. Australian Fish Names Standard. http://www.fishnames.com.au/. ( Milk Shark )


History of changes

Note that this list may be incomplete for dates prior to September 2013.
Published As part of group Action Date Action Type Compiler(s)
16-Aug-2012 16-Aug-2012 MODIFIED
16-Apr-2012 16-Apr-2012 MODIFIED
29-Jul-2011 MODIFIED

Accessibility | Disclaimer | Privacy | Freedom of information | © Commonwealth of Australia
Last modified: Thursday, 16 August 2012 4:34:32 PM AEST

Department of the Environment and Energy
GPO Box 787
Canberra ACT 2601 Australia
+61 (0)2 6274 1111 ABN

Our land. Our plan. Our future.
Australian Government  

Following modified from Taiwan Biodiversity National Information Network
   Top | See original

Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Rhizoprionodon  
  Rhizoprionodon acutus    (Rüppell, 1837) 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharhinus acutus Carcharias aaronis Carcharias acutus Carcharias crenidens Carcharias eumeces Carcharias walbeehmi Carcharias walbeehmii Carcharias walbenii Cynocephalus acutus Hypoprion acutus Scoliodon acutus details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993); 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001); FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
Character: Prenarial snout length 4-5.4% of total length. Teeth not well-differentiated between sexes. Total tooth rows usually 25/24. Position of 1st dorsal origin usually over or slightly in front of pectoral free rear tips. Second dorsal origin ranges from above last third of anal base to over its insertion. Length of pectoral anterior margin usually equal to or shorter than 1st dorsal length from origin to free rear tip. Total number of vertebral centra 121-162, precaudal centra 55-79. Colour grey, grey-brown or purplish brown above, pale below, pectoral fins with a light margin. 
Habitat: An abundant inshore and offshore shark of continental shelves, at depth of a metre or less down to about 200 m. Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta. Litter size 1-8. Gestation period estimated to be about a year. Maximum size 178 cm, but most adults smal 
Distribution: Eastern Atlantic from Madeira and Mauritania to Angola. Indo-West Pacific from South Africa and Red Sea to Pakistan, India,Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, Australia. 
Utility: This is one of the most abundant species. It is caught with longline, hook-and-line, bottom trawls, and probably other gear. It utilized fresh and possibly dried salted for food and for fishmeal. 
Name Code: 383086
  IUCN Red List:LC       Marine     
Suggested Link    The Fish Database of Taiwan    FishBase    Discover Life    World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS)  
User Response:   upload Comments    upload Photo
Previous Page       Home Page

Following modified from FishBase
   Top | See original

http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Rhizoprionodon&speciesname=acutus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Rhizoprionodon&speciesname=acutus
https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Rhizoprionodon&speciesname=acutus ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Rhizoprionodon-acutus.html

You can sponsor this page

Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell , 1837)

Milk shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Year 2100
Reviewed map
Rhizoprionodon acutus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos  and  videos
Pictures | Google image

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Rhizoprionodon: Greek, rhiza = root + Greek, prion = saw + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on author: Rüppell .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 244 ).   Tropical; 41°N - 30°S, 27°W - 156°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola; reported from the Gulf of Taranto (Ref. 231 ). Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964 ), Red Sea and East Africa to Indonesia, north to Japan, south to Australia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ? , range 70 - 80 cm
Max length : 175 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12693 ); 80.8 cm TL (female); common length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47737 ); max. published weight: 5.0 kg (Ref. 40637 ); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 244 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. A small shark with a long, narrow, snout, big eyes without notches, long labial furrows, and oblique-cusped teeth which may be smooth-edged or weakly serrated; 2nd dorsal fin small, low and behind larger anal fin; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578 ). Grey or grey-brown above, white below (Ref. 5578 ). Dorsal and anal fins with dusky or blackish edges, fins slightly darker than back (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on continental shelves, often on sandy beaches and rarely in estuaries (Ref. 244 ). Reported to enter freshwater and recorded several times from Cambodia as far upstream as the Great Lake (Ref. 12693 ). Occurs near the surface in shallow waters (Ref. 12693 ). Feeds mainly on small pelagic and benthic bony fishes, also cephalopods and other invertebrates (Ref. 244 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Utilized fresh and possibly dried salted for human consumption and for fishmeal (Ref. 9997 ). The 178 cm specimen recorded off Africa is possibly based on some other species (Ref. 9997 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ). Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta; 2 to 8 in a litter (Ref. 9997 ), usually 2 to 5 after a gestation period of ~ 12 months; no seasonality in the reproductive cycle (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 25 and 39 cm.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Least Concern (LC)  ; Date assessed: 30 April 2003

CITES (Ref. 115941 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 244 )

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


E-book | Field guide | Identification keys | Length-frequency wizard | Life-history tool | Point map | Classification Tree | Catch-MSY |

Special reports

Check for Aquarium maintenance | Check for Species Fact Sheets | Check for Aquaculture Fact Sheets

Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 19.6 - 28.5, mean 26.9 (based on 1463 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5078   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00251 - 0.00437), b=3.09 (3.04 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  4.3   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 69278 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.2-0.6; Fec=1). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
Comments & Corrections
Sign our Guest Book Back to Search Random Species Back to Top
Accessed through: Not available FishBase mirror site : localhost Page last modified by : mrius-barile - 20 July 2016
Total processing time for the page : 1.5030 seconds

Updated: 2020-02-18 06:16:19 gmt
TaiBIF | Search | All Living Things | Top
© Designed by The Polistes Corporation