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Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1815)
BROOK TROUT
Brookie; Common brook trout; Eastern brook trout; Eastern speckled trout; Mountain trout; Brook Char; Salmo fontinalis Mitchill, 1815

Life   Vertebrata   Fish   Salmonidae   Salvelinus

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http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salvelinus+fontinalis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal ---> https://calphotos.berkeley.edu/cgi/img_query?query_src=dl&where-taxon=Salvelinus+fontinalis&where-lifeform=specimen_tag&rel-lifeform=ne&rel-taxon=begins+with&where-lifeform=Animal

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Number of matches : 3
Query: SELECT * FROM img WHERE ready=1 and taxon like "Salvelinus fontinalis%" and (lifeform != "specimen_tag" OR lifeform != "Animal") ORDER BY taxon

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Salvelinus fontinalis
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook Trout
ID: 0000 0000 0704 0630 [detail]
© 2004 John White

Salvelinus fontinalis
UCMP specimen card
ID: 2222 0804 0009 0044 [detail]
© University of California Museum of Paleontology

Salvelinus fontinalis
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook Trout
ID: 0000 0000 0905 0816 [detail]
© 2005 John Isaac Holson

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https://www.fishbase.in/Summary/speciesSummary.php?genusname=Salvelinus&speciesname=fontinalis ---> https://www.fishbase.in/summary/Salvelinus-fontinalis.html

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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill , 1814)

Brook trout Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Salvelinus fontinalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | Google image Image of Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook trout) Salvelinus fontinalis
Picture by JJPhoto

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salvelinus: Old name for char; it is the same root of german "saibling" = little salmon (Ref. 45335 ) ;   fontinalis: fontinalis meaning living in springs (Ref. 1998 ) .  More on author: Mitchill .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; anadromous (Ref. 120291 ); depth range 15 - 27 m (Ref. 3899 ).   Temperate; 0°C - 25°C (Ref. 35682 ); 61°N - 34°N, 124°W - 52°W (Ref. 86798 )

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

North America: native to most of eastern Canada from Newfoundland and Labrador to western side of Hudson Bay; south in Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins to Minnesota and northern Georgia (Applachian Mountains), USA; headwaters of Chattahoochee River (Gulf basin). Introduced widely in North America and temperate regions of other continents. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m   ?   range ? - ? cm
Max length : 86.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248 ); common length : 26.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193 ); max. published weight: 8.0 kg (Ref. 100229 ); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 72501 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-14; Anal spines : 3-4; Anal soft rays : 8 - 14; Vertebrae : 58 - 62. Distinguished by the combination of dark green marbling on its back and dorsal fin and by the red spots with blue halos on its sides (Ref. 27547 ). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal nearly straight or with a shallow indentation (Ref. 27547 ). Color varies, but generally rather green to brownish on back, marked with paler vermiculations or marbling that extend onto the dorsal fin and sometimes the caudal; sides lighter than back, marked with numerous pale spots and some red spots, each of the latter surrounded by a blue halo; anal, pelvic and pectoral fins with a white leading edge followed by a dark stripe, the rest of the fins reddish (Ref. 27547 ). In spawning fish the lower sides and fins become red (Ref. 27547 ). Sea-run fish are dark green above with silvery sides, white bellies and very pale pink spots (Ref. 27547 ). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs in clear, cool, well-oxygenated creeks, small to medium rivers, and lakes (Ref. 5723 , 86798 ). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426 ). Anadromous in some populations (Ref. 86798 ). In its native range, general upstream movements have been observed in early spring, summer and late fall; downstream movements, in late spring and fall (Ref. 28546 , 28548 , 28549 , 28550 ). Some fish, popularly known as salters, run to the sea in the spring as stream temperature rises, but never venture more than a few kilometers from river mouths. It may remain at sea for up to three months (Ref. 28546 , 28549 , 28551 ). Feeds on a wide range of organisms including worms, leeches, crustaceans, insects (chironomids, caddisflies, blackflies, mayflies, stoneflies and dragonflies (Ref. 5951 ), mollusks, fishes and amphibians (Ref. 3348 , 10294 ); also small mammals (Ref. 1998 ). Stomachs of some individuals contained traces of plant remains (Ref. 1998 ). There are reports of introduced fish reaching 15 years of age in California, USA (Ref. 28545 ). Cultured for food and for stocking (Ref. 27547 ). Extensively used as an experimental animal (Ref. 1998 ). Marketed fresh and smoked; eaten fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Courtship begins with a male attempting to drive a female toward suitable spawning gravel. A receptive female chooses a spot and digs a redd. While the female is digging, the male continues courtship activity, darting alongside the female and quivering, swimming over and under her and rubbing her with his fins; most of the time however, is spent driving off other males. When the redd is completed, the pair enter the nest and deposit eggs and milt. After spawning the female covers the eggs by sweeping small pebbles at the downstream edge of the redd upstream. Once the eggs are completely covered, she moves to the upstream end of the redd and begins digging a new redd (Ref. 27547 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr , 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

    Not Evaluated  

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Potential pest




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums FAO(Aquaculture: production ; fisheries: production ; publication : search ) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
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Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
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Tools

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Special reports

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Download XML

Summary page | Point data | Common names | Photos

Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank( genome , nucleotide ) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia( Go , Search ) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 1.5 - 10.7, mean 4.5 (based on 47 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00796 - 0.01094), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.3   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=1-3; tmax=7). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Very high .

Entered by Luna, Susan M. Modified by Luna, Susan M. Fish Forum
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