FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world
White, W.T., P.R. Last and G.J.P. Naylor, 2010. Scoliodon macrorhynchos (Bleeker, 1852), a second species of spadenose shark from the Western Pacific (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae). pp. 61-76. In P.R. Last, W.T. White, and J.J. Pogonoski (eds). Descriptions of new sharks and rays from Borneo. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper no. 32.
A moderately stout, with head broad, greatly depressed, and trowel shaped shark. Snout bell-shaped in dorsoventral view. Preoral length greater than internarial space and mouth width. Eyes small and without posterior notches. Spiracles absent. Teeth similar in upper and lower jaws. Teeth of anteroposteriors with slender oblique cusps and distal blades but no cusplets or serrations. 25-33/24-34 rows of teeth. Interdorsal ridge absent. First dorsal origin over or behind pectoral rear tips, its midbase much closer to pelvic bases than to pectorals and its free rear tip about over pelvic midbases. Second dorsal fin height 1/3 of 1st height or less. Pectoral fin origin under interspace between 4th and 5th of gill slits. Anal fin much larger than 2nd dorsal fin, with short preanal ridges. Colour light grey, yellowish or brownish grey above, without any colour pattern.
A common tropical and subtropical shark of continental and insular shelves. Viviparous, with an unusual columnar placenta. Fertilized eggs are unusually small, only 1 mm in diameter and with little yolk. Maximum size is about 74 cm. Males maturing at 24-3
Indo-West Pacific including Tanzania, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Java, Borneo, China, Taiwan, Japan.
Caught with hook-and-line, longline, floating and bottom gillnets and set bottom nets, and traps. Utilized fresh for human consumption.
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref.
), Somalia (Ref.
), Tanzania, Mozambique (Ref.
), Pakistan to Java in Indonesia; then Japan, China, and Taiwan. Reported from Australia (Ref.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
, range 33 - 35 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref.
); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref.
Found on rocky substrates of coastal waters and lower reaches of tropical rivers (Ref.
). It is uncertain, however, if this species can live in perfectly fresh water for extended periods (Ref.
). Forms large schools (Ref.
). Feeds on small bony fishes, shrimps and cuttlefish (Ref.
). Viviparous (Ref.
). Common by-catch of the inshore demersal gillnet fisheries, particularly those operating off Kalimantan (Ref.58048). Utilized fresh for human consumption; processed into fishmeal and used as bait for other sharks and bony fishes (Ref.
). Maximum sizes up to 120 cm unconfirmed (Ref.
Viviparous, with an unusual columnar placenta (Ref.
). Maternal and foetal placenta comprises the entire placenta (Ref.
). Transplacental nutrient transfer may be hemotrophic (Ref.
). Litter size varies from 1 (Ref.58048) to 14 (Ref.
). Size at birth about 13 to 15 cm TL (Ref.
). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref.
, 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 25.3 - 29, mean 28.5 (based on 1946 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00243 - 0.00750), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.8 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.88; tm=2; tmax=6; Fec=1).
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Carpenter, Kent E.
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