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Scoliodon laticaudus Muller and Henle, 1838
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Kingdom Animalia  
 Phylum Chordata  
 Class Chondrichthyes  
 Order Carcharhiniformes  
 Family Carcharhinidae  
 Genus Scoliodon  
  Scoliodon laticaudus    Müller & Henle, 1838 
Provider: Pofeng Lee& Shoou-Jeng Joung 
hierarchy tree    download xml    download txt    Chinese Page    
Synonyms: Carcharias macrorhynchos Carcharias muelleri Carcharias palasoora Carcharias sorrahkowah Carcharias sorrakowah Physodon muelleri Physodon taylori Rhizoprionodon oligolinx Rhizoprionodon taylori Scoliodon palasorrah Scoliodon sorrakawah details
Citation: 臺灣魚類誌(沈等, 1993) 中國動物誌-圓口綱及軟骨魚綱(朱等, 2001) FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.4 Sharks of the world White, W.T., P.R. Last and G.J.P. Naylor, 2010. Scoliodon macrorhynchos (Bleeker, 1852), a second species of spadenose shark from the Western Pacific (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae). pp. 61-76. In P.R. Last, W.T. White, and J.J. Pogonoski (eds). Descriptions of new sharks and rays from Borneo. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper no. 32.
Character: A moderately stout, with head broad, greatly depressed, and trowel shaped shark. Snout bell-shaped in dorsoventral view. Preoral length greater than internarial space and mouth width. Eyes small and without posterior notches. Spiracles absent. Teeth similar in upper and lower jaws. Teeth of anteroposteriors with slender oblique cusps and distal blades but no cusplets or serrations. 25-33/24-34 rows of teeth. Interdorsal ridge absent. First dorsal origin over or behind pectoral rear tips, its midbase much closer to pelvic bases than to pectorals and its free rear tip about over pelvic midbases. Second dorsal fin height 1/3 of 1st height or less. Pectoral fin origin under interspace between 4th and 5th of gill slits. Anal fin much larger than 2nd dorsal fin, with short preanal ridges. Colour light grey, yellowish or brownish grey above, without any colour pattern. 
Habitat: A common tropical and subtropical shark of continental and insular shelves. Viviparous, with an unusual columnar placenta. Fertilized eggs are unusually small, only 1 mm in diameter and with little yolk. Maximum size is about 74 cm. Males maturing at 24-3 
Distribution: Indo-West Pacific including Tanzania, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Java, Borneo, China, Taiwan, Japan. 
Utility: Caught with hook-and-line, longline, floating and bottom gillnets and set bottom nets, and traps. Utilized fresh for human consumption. 
Name Code: 383087
  IUCN Red List:NT       Marine     
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Common name (e.g. trout)

Genus + Species (e.g. Gadus morhua)

Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle , 1838

Spadenose shark Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Scoliodon laticaudus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pictures | Google image Image of Scoliodon laticaudus (Spadenose shark) Scoliodon laticaudus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes ( gen. , sp. ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Scoliodon: Greek, skolex = worm + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335 ) .  More on authors: Müller & Henle .

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243 ); depth range 10 - 13 m.   Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959 ); 34°N - 26°S, 32°E - 130°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964 ), Somalia (Ref. 30573 ), Tanzania, Mozambique (Ref. 5213 ), Pakistan to Java in Indonesia; then Japan, China, and Taiwan. Reported from Australia (Ref. 4959 ).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: L m 34.3 , range 33 - 35 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450 ); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 244 )

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0; Anal spines : 0; Anal soft rays : 0. Bronze grey above, white below, fins sometimes darker than body; no conspicuous markings (Ref. 9997 ).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found on rocky substrates of coastal waters and lower reaches of tropical rivers (Ref. 244 ). It is uncertain, however, if this species can live in perfectly fresh water for extended periods (Ref. 244 ). Forms large schools (Ref. 244 ). Feeds on small bony fishes, shrimps and cuttlefish (Ref. 244 ). Viviparous (Ref. 50449 ). Common by-catch of the inshore demersal gillnet fisheries, particularly those operating off Kalimantan (Ref.58048). Utilized fresh for human consumption; processed into fishmeal and used as bait for other sharks and bony fishes (Ref. 244 ). Maximum sizes up to 120 cm unconfirmed (Ref. 244 ).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Viviparous, with an unusual columnar placenta (Ref. 244 ). Maternal and foetal placenta comprises the entire placenta (Ref. 39556 ). Transplacental nutrient transfer may be hemotrophic (Ref. 39556 ). Litter size varies from 1 (Ref.58048) to 14 (Ref. 9997 ). Size at birth about 13 to 15 cm TL (Ref. 9997 ). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205 ).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Collaborators

Compagno, L.J.V. , 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244 )

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744 )

  Near Threatened (NT)  ; Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484 )

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361 )

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 244 )

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; bait: usually FAO(Publication : search ) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969 ): 25.3 - 29, mean 28.5 (based on 1946 cells). Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805 ):  PD 50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high]. Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00243 - 0.00750), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245 ). Trophic Level (Ref. 69278 ):  3.8   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies. Resilience (Ref. 120179 ):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (K=0.88; tm=2; tmax=6; Fec=1). Vulnerability (Ref. 59153 ):  Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) . Price category (Ref. 80766 ):   Medium .

Entered by Carpenter, Kent E. Modified by Wiethüchter, Anita Fish Forum
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