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Abies balsamea (L. ) Mill.
BALSAM FIR
Abies x phanerolepsis; Canada balsam; Pinus balsamea

Life   Plantae   Gymnospermae   Pinaceae   Abies


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Associates · map
FamilyScientific name @ source (records)
Amphisphaeriaceae  Amphisphaeria vestigialis @ BPI (1)

Discosia artocreas @ BPI (3)

Pestalotia camptosperma @ BPI (2)

Pestalotia tumefaciens @ BPI (4)

Pestalotia @ BPI (1)
Anthocoridae  Tetraphleps canadensis @ AMNH_IZC (1)
Aphididae  Cinara ( @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Mindarus abietinus @ AMNH_PBI (1); NCSU (4)

Prociphilus ( @ NCSU (1)

Uroleucon ( @ NCSU (3)
Auriculariaceae  Auricularia auricula @ BPI (17)
Bertiaceae  Bertia moriformis @ BPI (1)
Biatorellaceae  Biatorella resinae @ BPI (1)
Botryobasidiaceae  Botryobasidium botryosum @ BPI (1)
Botryosphaeriaceae  Macrophoma parca @ 360303A (1); 360303B (1)
Ceratocystidaceae  Ceratocystis piceae @ BPI (3)
Chionosphaeraceae  Stilbum resinarium @ BPI (2)
Coniophoraceae  Coniophora cerebella @ BPI (2)

Coniophora puteana @ BPI (7)

Coniophora sistotremoides @ BPI (1)

Leucogyrophana romellii @ BPI (2)
Corticiaceae  Corticium berkeleyi @ BPI (1)

Corticium confluens @ BPI (1)

Corticium furfuraceum @ BPI (1)

Corticium galactinum @ BPI (11)

Corticium galzinii @ BPI (1)

Corticium lacteum @ BPI (2)

Corticium lividocoeruleum @ BPI (1)

Corticium pilosum @ BPI (1)

Corticium pini-canadensis @ BPI (2)

Corticium subcoronatum @ BPI (1)

Corticium suecicum @ BPI (1)

Corticium sulphureoisabellinum @ BPI (4)

Corticium sulphureum @ BPI (3)

Corticium @ BPI (2)
Cronartiaceae  Peridermium balsameum @ BPI (61)

Peridermium elatinum @ BPI (5)

Peridermium pycnoconspicuum @ BPI (1)

Peridermium pycnogrande @ BPI (1)

Peridermium @ 847063B (1); BPI (18)
Cryptomycetaceae  Potebniamyces balsamicola @ BPI (1)
Cudoniaceae  Spathularia @ BPI (1)
Cystostereaceae  Cystostereum pini-canadense @ BPI (1)
Dacrymycetaceae  Dacrymyces aurantia @ BPI (1)

Dacrymyces palmatus @ BPI (3)
Davidiellaceae  Cladosporium herbarum @ BPI (1)
Dermateaceae  Cenangella abietina @ BPI (1)

Dermea balsamea @ 663954B (1); 663954A (1); BPI (34)

Dermea phyllophila @ BPI (2)

Nothophacidium abietinellum @ BPI (3)

Nothophacidium phyllophilum @ BPI (1)

Pezicula livida @ BPI (1)

Pezicula @ BPI (1)
Diatrypaceae  Eutypella @ BPI (1)

Libertella abietis @ BPI (1)
Entolomataceae  Claudopus nidulans @ BPI (1)
Exidiaceae  Pseudohydnum gelatinosum @ BPI (6)
Helminthosphaeriaceae  Diplococcium spicatum @ BPI (1)
Helotiaceae  Ascocalyx abietis @ 666397A (1); 666415B (1); 666392A (1); 666396B (1); 666396A (1); 666397B (1); 666392B (1); 666231A (1); 666394A (1); 666233A (1); 666415A (1); BPI (29); 666231B (1); 666243A (1); 666243B (1); 666394B (1); 666233B (1)

Ascocalyx pinicola @ BPI (1)

Cenangium abietis @ BPI (1)

Cenangium balsameum @ 875906B (1)

Cenangium ferruginosum @ BPI (1)

Chlorociboria aeruginascens @ BPI (3)

Scleroderris abietina @ BPI (1)

Tympanis abietina @ BPI (9)

Tympanis pinastri @ BPI (19)

Tympanis truncatula @ BPI (15)

Tympanis @ BPI (1)
Helvellaceae  Balsamia @ BPI (1)
Hemiphacidiaceae  Sarcotrochila balsameae @ BPI (6)
Hyaloscyphaceae  Dasyscyphus agassizii @ BPI (167)

Dasyscyphus arida @ BPI (13)

Dasyscyphus calyciformis @ BPI (3)

Dasyscyphus calycinus @ BPI (3)

Dasyscyphus intermedia @ BPI (15)

Dasyscyphus resinarius @ BPI (3)

Dasyscyphus @ BPI (2)

Lachnellula agassizii @ BPI (1)

Lachnellula arida @ BPI (1)

Lachnellula ciliata @ BPI (1)
Hydnaceae  Hydnum alboviride @ BPI (1)
Hymenochaetaceae  Hymenochaete badioferruginea @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete corrugata @ BPI (2)

Hymenochaete spreta @ BPI (1)

Hymenochaete tabacina @ BPI (9)
Hypocreaceae  Hypocrea sulphurea @ BPI (4)
Hysteriaceae  Hysterographium mori @ BPI (1)

Pseudoscypha abietis @ BPI (1)
Lachnocladiaceae  Scytinostroma galactinum @ BPI (1)

Vararia investiens @ BPI (1)
Leptosphaeriaceae  Coniothyrium colliculosum @ BPI (1)
Lophiostomataceae  Herpotrichia nigra @ BPI (7)
Lycoperdaceae  Lycoperdon pyriforme @ BPI (1)
Marasmiaceae  Armillaria mellea @ BPI (2)

Marasmius filopes @ BPI (1)
Melampsoraceae  Melampsora abieti-capraearum @ BPI (3)

Melampsora americana @ BPI (2)

Melampsora humboldtiana @ BPI (3)
Melandryidae  Serropalpus coxalis @ UCRC_ENT (3)
Meliolaceae  Meliola balsamicola @ 860877B (1)
Meripilaceae  Antrodia heteromorpha @ BPI (1)
Meruliaceae  Cylindrobasidium evolvens @ BPI (1)

Dacryobolus sudans @ BPI (1)

Merulius fugax @ BPI (10)

Merulius taxicola @ BPI (2)

Phlebia albida @ BPI (1)

Phlebia merismoides @ BPI (2)
Microthyriaceae  Seynesiella @ BPI (1)
Miridae  Atractotomus magnicornis @ AMNH_PBI (16)

Dichrooscytus latifrons @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Goodeniaphila cassisi @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Neolygus piceicola @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phoenicocoris dissimilis @ AMNH_PBI (1)

Phoenicocoris rostratus @ AMNH_PBI (2)
Mycosphaerellaceae  Septoria @ BPI (2)
Mytilinidiaceae  Lophium mytilinum @ BPI (7)

Mytilinidion decipiens @ BPI (2)

Mytilinidion @ BPI (1)
Nectriaceae  Nectria balsamea @ BPI (8)

Nectria cucurbitula @ BPI (4)

Nectria ditissima @ BPI (1)

Nectria episphaeria @ BPI (7)

Nectria fuckeliana @ BPI (1)

Nectria magnusiana @ BPI (1)

Nectria neomacrospora @ BPI (1)

Neonectria fuckeliana @ BPI (2)

Neonectria @ BPI (1)

Ophionectria scolecospora @ BPI (5)

Tubercularia vulgaris @ BPI (1)
Odontasteridae  Asterodon ferruginosus @ BPI (4)
Parodiellaceae  Parodiella @ BPI (1)
Patellariaceae  Patellaria patinelloides @ BPI (1)
Peniophoraceae  Peniophora crassa @ BPI (1)

Peniophora glebulosa @ BPI (3)

Peniophora gracillima @ BPI (1)

Peniophora nuda @ BPI (1)

Peniophora pallidula @ BPI (1)

Peniophora piceae @ BPI (1)

Peniophora piceina @ BPI (1)

Peniophora tomentella @ BPI (2)

Peniophora viticola @ BPI (1)
Pezizaceae  Peziza vesiculosa @ BPI (1)
Phacidiaceae  Ceuthospora abietina @ BPI (2)

Phacidium abietinellum @ BPI (5)

Phacidium abietis @ BPI (6)

Phacidium infestans @ BPI (49); 669313B (1); 669313A (1)
Phaeosphaeriaceae  Leptosphaeria acicola @ BPI (1)

Leptosphaeria faullii @ 620926B (1); 620926A (1); 620927C (1); 620927B (1); 620925B (1); 620928A (1); 620928B (1); 620925C (1); 620925A (1); 620927A (1)

Leptosphaeria @ BPI (4)
Phanerochaetaceae  Phanerochaete carnosa @ BPI (1)
Plectosphaerellaceae  Verticillium abietis @ BPI (1)
Pleomassariaceae  Helminthosporium @ BPI (2)

Stegonsporium cenangioides @ BPI (2)
Pleosporaceae  Macrosporium leptotrichum @ BPI (1)
Polyporaceae  Fomes annosus @ BPI (1)

Fomes carneus @ BPI (1)

Fomes pini @ BPI (16)

Fomes pinicola @ BPI (16)

Fomes robustus @ BPI (1)

Fomes roseus @ BPI (3)

Fomes subroseus @ BPI (1)

Fomes viticola @ BPI (1)

Hirschioporus fuscoviolaceus @ BPI (2)

Lenzites saepiaria @ BPI (19)

Lenzites sepiaria @ BPI (1)

Panus rudis @ BPI (1)

Panus stipticus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus abieticola @ BPI (4)

Polyporus abietinus @ BPI (49)

Polyporus adustus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus alutaceus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus amorphus @ BPI (5)

Polyporus anceps @ BPI (5)

Polyporus balsameus @ BPI (28)

Polyporus borealis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus caesius @ BPI (8)

Polyporus cinnabarinus @ BPI (7)

Polyporus fibrillosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus floriformis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fragilis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus fusco-violaceus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus guttulatus @ BPI (8)

Polyporus hirsutus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus hirtus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus immitis @ BPI (3)

Polyporus lapponicus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus laricinus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus mollis @ BPI (1)

Polyporus nidulans @ BPI (1)

Polyporus picipes @ BPI (7)

Polyporus resinosus @ BPI (6)

Polyporus schweinitzii @ BPI (14)

Polyporus semisupinus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tephroleucus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus tomentosus @ BPI (1)

Polyporus tulipiferus @ BPI (3)

Polyporus undosus @ BPI (2)

Polyporus versicolor @ BPI (7)

Polyporus volvatus @ BPI (1)

Poria candidissima @ BPI (3)

Poria cinerascens @ BPI (1)

Poria crassa @ BPI (1)

Poria crustulina @ BPI (5)

Poria ferruginosa @ BPI (6)

Poria illudens @ BPI (1)

Poria mollusca @ BPI (2)

Poria rhodella @ BPI (1)

Poria rubens @ BPI (1)

Poria rufa @ BPI (2)

Poria semitincta @ BPI (1)

Poria sericeo-mollis @ BPI (2)

Poria subacida @ BPI (26)

Poria subincarnata @ BPI (11)

Poria taxicola @ BPI (9)

Poria tsugina @ BPI (9)

Poria vulgaris @ BPI (2)

Poria xantha @ BPI (4)

Poria @ BPI (3)

Trametes heteromorpha @ BPI (9)

Trametes malicola @ BPI (2)

Trametes odorata @ BPI (1)

Trametes pini @ BPI (1)

Trametes serialis @ BPI (3)

Trametes subrosea @ BPI (1)

Trametes variiformis @ BPI (4)

Tyromyces stipticus @ BPI (1)
Pucciniaceae  Puccinia grindeliae @ BPI (1)
Pucciniastraceae  Hyalopsora aspidiotus @ BPI (52)

Melampsorella caryophyllacearum @ BPI (20)

Melampsorella cerastii @ BPI (50)

Melampsorella elatina @ BPI (38)

Melampsorella @ BPI (3)

Milesina polypodophila @ BPI (3)

Pucciniastrum epilobii @ 144180B (1); 144180A (1); BPI (41)

Pucciniastrum goeppertianum @ BPI (32)

Pucciniastrum pustulatum @ BPI (3)

Pucciniastrum @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis americana @ BPI (2)

Uredinopsis atkinsonii @ BPI (3)

Uredinopsis ceratophora @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis copelandii @ BPI (1)

Uredinopsis longimucronata @ BPI (13)

Uredinopsis mirabilis @ 847122A (1); BPI (62)

Uredinopsis osmundae @ BPI (38)

Uredinopsis phegopteridis @ 040734A (1); BPI (9); 040734B (1)

Uredinopsis struthiopteridis @ BPI (14)

Uredinopsis @ 1100217A (1); BPI (5); 1100217B (1)
Rhytismataceae  Bifusella faullii @ 650482B (1); 650502B (1); BPI (53); 650482A (1); 650502A (1)

Hypoderma macrospora @ BPI (2)

Hypodermella mirabilis @ BPI (12)

Hypodermella nervata @ 651020A (1); 651020B (1); BPI (44)

Hypodermella punctata @ BPI (9)

Hypodermella @ BPI (2)

Lirula nervata @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium abietis @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium autumnale @ 651243B (1); 651240B (1); 651240A (1); 651243A (1); 651239A (1); 651241A (1); 651246B (1); 651242B (1); 651242A (1); 651241B (1); 651246A (1); 651239C (1); BPI (2); 651245A (1); 651245B (1); 651239B (1); 651243C (1)

Lophodermium lacerum @ BPI (21)

Lophodermium piceae @ BPI (1)

Lophodermium @ BPI (4)

Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae @ BPI (1)
Sarcosomataceae  Pseudoplectania melaena @ BPI (1)

Pseudoplectania vogesiaca @ BPI (1)
Schizophyllaceae  Schizophyllum commune @ BPI (4)
Sclerotiniaceae  Sclerotinia kerneri @ BPI (10)
Seuratiaceae  Atichia glomerulosa @ 646302A (1); 646302B (1)
Sistotremataceae  Trechispora confinis @ BPI (2)

Trechispora sphaerospora @ BPI (1)
Steccherinaceae  Odontia arguta @ BPI (1)

Odontia aspera @ BPI (1)

Odontia barba-jovis @ BPI (1)

Odontia bicolor @ BPI (4)

Odontia crustosa @ BPI (2)

Odontia floccosa @ BPI (2)

Odontia hydnoides @ BPI (1)

Odontia setigera @ BPI (1)
Stereaceae  Aleurodiscus abietis @ BPI (26)

Aleurodiscus amorphus @ BPI (132)

Aleurodiscus canadensis @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus farlowii @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus lividocoeruleus @ BPI (1)

Aleurodiscus penicillatus @ BPI (1)

Gloeocystidiellum citrinum @ BPI (1)

Stereum abietinum @ BPI (1)

Stereum chailletii @ BPI (4)

Stereum sanguinolentum @ BPI (41)
Syrphidae  Milesia fructuosa @ BPI (14)

Milesia intermedia @ BPI (34)

Milesia kriegeriana @ BPI (1)

Milesia marginalis @ BPI (13)

Milesia polypodophila @ 148383B (1); 148384A (1); BPI (17); 148383A (1); 148389B (1); 148389A (1); 148384B (1)

Milesia pycnograndis @ BPI (2)
Tremellaceae  Tremella mycophaga @ BPI (4)
Tricholomataceae  Clitocybe monadelpha @ BPI (1)

Omphalia campanella @ BPI (4)

Trogia crispa @ BPI (4)
Trichosphaeriaceae  Trichosphaeria parasitica @ BPI (2)
Tubeufiaceae  Acanthostigma parasiticum @ 624382A (1); 624382B (1); BPI (12)
Tulasnellaceae  Tulasnella fuscoviolacea @ BPI (1)
Ulvaceae  Solenia fasciculata @ BPI (2)

Solenia polyporoidea @ BPI (1)
Uropyxidaceae  Aecidium elatinum @ BPI (1)
Valsaceae  Cytospora friesii @ BPI (1)

Cytospora kunzei @ BPI (1)

Cytospora pinastri @ BPI (3)

Cytospora @ BPI (1)

Radulum orbiculare @ BPI (5)

Valsa abietis @ 700803B (1); BPI (21); 700803A (1)

Valsa brevis @ BPI (4)

Valsa colliculus @ BPI (1)

Valsa friesii @ BPI (17)

Valsa kunzei @ BPI (5)

Valsa pini @ BPI (1)

Valsa @ BPI (3)
Venturiaceae  Phaeocryptopus nudus @ BPI (20)

Rhizosphaera abietis @ BPI (1)

Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii @ BPI (1)

Rhizosphaera pini @ BPI (8)
Vibrisseaceae  Vibrissea truncorum @ BPI (1)
_  Adelopus balsamicola @ 691600B (1); 691600A (1); 860877A (1); 691601A (1); BPI (12); 691611A (1); 691601B (1); 691610B (1); 691611B (1); 691610A (1)

Adelopus nudus @ 691628B (1); 691628C (1); BPI (35); 691628A (1)

Ascochyta piniperda @ BPI (1)

Bothrodiscus pinicola @ 363334A (1); 363339B (1); 363373A (1); 363373B (1); BPI (40); 363339A (1); 363334B (1)

Calyptospora columnaris @ BPI (5)

Calyptospora goeppertiana @ BPI (2)

Chilonectria rosellinii @ BPI (1)

Coriolellus heteromorphus @ BPI (1)

Cryptosporium noveboracense @ BPI (1)

Dimerosporium balsamicola @ 860874A (1); BPI (10)

Endoconidiophora coerulescens @ BPI (1)

Gelatinosporium abietinum @ BPI (13)

Gelatinosporium balsameum @ BPI (3)

Grandinia raduloides @ BPI (1)

Grandinia @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus abietinus @ BPI (2)

Hypochnus abietis @ BPI (8)

Hypochnus fomosus @ BPI (1)

Hypochnus vagus @ BPI (1)

Maurodothina farriae @ BPI (6)

Micropera abietina @ BPI (1)

Micropera abietis @ BPI (3)

Naematelia @ BPI (1)

Phaeophacidium abietinum @ BPI (3)

Phragmotrichum chailletii @ BPI (2)

Rehmiellopsis abietis @ BPI (5)

Rehmiellopsis balsameae @ BPI (22)

Sclerophoma magnusiana @ BPI (1)

Sclerophoma @ BPI (1)

Scoleconectria balsamea @ BPI (34)

Scoleconectria cucurbitula @ BPI (3)

Scoleconectria scolecosperma @ BPI (1)

Scoleconectria scolecospora @ BPI (6)

Sphaeronaema @ BPI (1)

Stegopezizella balsameae @ BPI (15)

Stegopezizella infestans @ BPI (3)

Streptothrix fusca @ BPI (1)

Thyronectria balsamea @ BPI (27)

Toxosporium abietinum @ BPI (1)

Toxosporium camptospermum @ BPI (1)

Toxosporium @ 860874B (1)

Trichoscyphella agassizii @ BPI (1)

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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 2 | Pinaceae | Abies

4. Abies balsamea (Linnaeus) Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. Abies no. 3. 1768.

Balsam fir, sapin baumler

Pinus balsamea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1002. 1753

Trees to 23m; trunk to 0.6m diam.; crown spirelike. Bark gray, thin, smooth, in age often becoming broken into irregular brownish scales. Branches diverging from trunk at right angles, the lower often spreading and drooping; twigs mostly opposite, greenish brown, pubescence sparse. Buds hidden by leaves or exposed, brown, conic, small, resinous, apex acute; basal scales short, broad, nearly equilaterally triangular, glabrous, resinous, margins entire, apex sharp-pointed. Leaves 1.2--2.5cm ´ 1.5--2mm, 1-ranked (particularly on lower branches) to spiraled, flexible; cross section flat, grooved adaxially; odor pinelike (copious ß-pinene); abaxial surface with (4--)6--7(--8) stomatal rows on each side of midrib; adaxial surface dark green, slightly or not glaucous, with 0--3 stomatal rows at midleaf, these more numerous toward leaf apex; apex slightly notched to rounded; resin canals large, ± median, away from margins, midway between abaxial and adaxial epidermal layers. Pollen cones at pollination red, purplish, bluish, greenish, or orange. Seed cones cylindric, 4--7 ´ 1.5--3cm, gray-purple, turning brown before scale shed, sessile, apex round to obtuse; scales ca. 1--l.5 ´ 0.7--1.7cm (relationship reversed in more western collections), pubescent; bracts included or exserted and reflexed over scales. Seeds 3--6 ´ 2--3mm, body brown; wing about twice as long as body, brown-purple; cotyledons ca. 4. 2 n =24.

Boreal and northern forests; 0--1700m; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., Man., N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Conn., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.Y., Pa., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Balsam fir is frequently segregated into two varieties (e.g., H.J. Scoggan 1978--1979) based on whether the bracts are included (var. balsamea ) or exserted (var. phanerolepis Fernald), the latter considered by Liu T. S. (1971) to be a hybrid between Abies balsamea and A . fraseri . D.T. Lester (1968) demonstrated, however, that bract length may vary within a cone, annually, and from tree to tree. Nevertheless, a tendency exists for the exserted variety to be found most commonly from Newfoundland south through New England (R.C. Hosie 1969; B.F. Jacobs et al. 1984); it is not found west of Ontario. Western populations lack 3-carene and have other minor chemical differences separating them from eastern balsam fir (E.Zavarin and K.Snajberk 1972; R.S. Hunt and E.von Rudloff 1974). Morphologic variation in balsam fir has been studied mainly east of Ontario; the populations to the west have been ignored for the most part, although they may yield stronger evidence for species subdivision.

In Alberta, populations intermediate between western Abies balsamea and A . bifolia (E.H. Moss 1953; R.S. Hunt and E.von Rudloff 1974, 1979) may be classified as A . balsamea ´ bifolia . In West Virginia and Virginia, populations of balsam fir tend to be more similar to A . fraseri than are more northern populations (B.F. Jacobs et al. 1984).

Balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) is the provincial tree of New Brunswick.

SELECTED REFERENCES

Lester, D.T. 1968. Variation in cone morphology of balsam fir, Abies balsamea . Rhodora 70: 83--94.

Updated: 2024-05-22 17:26:12 gmt
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