Off Bonaparte Archipelago, WA (126º19´E) to off Darwin, NT (130º17´E); tropical, east-Indo-west Pacific.
that conversion of the original AFD map of states, drainage basins and coastal and oceanic zones to IBRA and IMCRA regions may have produced errors. The new maps will be reviewed and corrected as updates occur.
The maps may not indicate the entire distribution. See further details below.
Timor Transition (1), Northern Shelf Province (25), Northwest Shelf Transition (26), Northwest Shelf Province (27)
Body strongly compressed, abdomen with complete series of keeled scutes from isthmus to anus; 18 to 20 prepelvic and 7 (sometimes 8) postpelvic scutes; total number of scutes 25 to 27. A small spine-like scute just anterior to dorsal-fin origin. Mouth slightly oblique. Lower gill rakers on first gill arch 13 to 17. Dorsal-fin moderately long, its origin about at body midpoint, between verticals through fourth and sixth anal-fin rays. Anal fin long, with iii unbranched and 46 to 56 branched fin rays, its origin anterior to vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Pectoral fins with first fin ray produced as a long filament which reaches posteriorly to base of first to 31st anal-fin ray, total pectoral-fin rays 11 to 13 (mostly 12). Upper lobe of caudal fin not noticeably shorter than lower lobe. Pelvic fins not reaching posteriorly to anus. Head gold, body yellow and stippled above; silver-white below; charcoal borders on scales along dorsal profile; dorsal and caudal fins yellow, stippled charcoal; heavy stippling on borders of fins; anal, pectoral, and pelvic fins pale yellow.
Presumably schooling and occurring mostly in coastal waters, but also entering estuaries. Feeds on prawn, copepods, crustacean larvae, mollusks and fishes.
Eastern Indian Ocean: northern and eastern Bay of Bengal coasts, including the Andaman Islands; perhaps southward from the Godavari river. Western Pacific: northern coast of Australia, Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Gulf of Papua, Sarawak, presumably the Philip
Feeds on prawns, copepods, crustacean larvae, molluscs, and fishes.
Eastern Indian Ocean: northern and eastern Bay of Bengal coasts, including the Andaman Islands; perhaps southward from the Godavari river. Western Pacific: northern coast of Australia, Arafura Sea (Ref.
), Gulf of Papua, Sarawak, presumably the Philippines and Hong Kong; China from Taiwan north to Yellow Sea and southern part of Sea of Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref.
: 46 - 56. Belly with 18 to 20 (rarely 17 or 21) + 7 (sometimes 8) = 25 to 27 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Lower gill rakers with the serrae uneven, with slight or sometimes distinct clumps of larger serrae. Pectoral filament moderate, reaching back to base of 9th to 21st anal fin ray.
Presumably schooling and occurring mostly in coastal waters, but also entering estuaries (Ref.
) (e.g. the Hooghly and Godavari in India) and penetrating at least 20 km up the Godavari, tolerating salinities as low as 8.7 ppt. Feeds on prawn, copepods, crustacean larvae, mollusks and fishes. Fairly common (Ref.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Munroe, T.A. and M. Nizinski
, 1999. Engraulidae. Anchovies. p. 1698-1706. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the WCP. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref.
Preferred temperature (Ref.
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.4 (based on 948 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref.
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00219 - 0.01145), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref.
Trophic Level (Ref.
): 3.6 ±0.51 se; Based on food items.
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Price category (Ref.
Binohlan, Crispina B.
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